Cultivation of Fruits

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  • Topic: Fruit, Orange, Citrus
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  • Published : March 21, 2013
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Aonla
Aonla or Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis) is an indigenous fruit to Indian subcontinent. Owing to hardy nature, suitability to various waste-lands, high productivity/unit area (15–20t/ha), nutritive and therapeutic value aonla have become an important fruit. Its fruits are a rich source of vitamin ‘C’. Aonla fruit is highly valued among indigenous medicines. It is acrid, cooling, refrigerant, diuretic and laxative. Dried fruits have been reported to be useful in haemorrhages, diarrhoea, dysentery, anaemia, jaundice, dyspepsia and cough. Trifla and chavanprash are well-known indigenous medicines in Ayurvedic system using aonla. Besides fruits, leaves, bark and even seeds are being used for various purposes. Its cultivation is common in India, particularly in Uttar Pradesh comprising Pratapgarh, Rai Bareilly, Varanasi, Jaunpur, Sultanpur, Kanpur, Agra and Mathura. Its intensive plantation is being done in the salt-affected areas of Uttar Pradesh, including ravinous areas in Agra, Mathura, Etawah, Fatehpur and semi-arid tract of Bundelkhand. Aonla cultivation is also spreading rapidly in the semi-arid regions of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Aravali ranges in Haryana and Kandi area in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh extending to Ghar area in Uttar Pradesh. [pic]

Climate and soil
Aonla is a subtropical plant and prefers dry subtropical climate. Heavy frost during winter is not conducive to its cultivation. A mature aonla tree can tolerate freezing as well as high temperature of 46°C. Warm temperature seems conducive for the initiation of floral buds. Ample humidity is essential for initiation of fruit growth of dormant fruitlets during July–August. Dry spells result in heavy dropping and delay in initiation of fruit growth. Since aonla is a hardy plant, it can be successfully grown in variable soil conditions. The deep root system, reduced foliage, dormancy of fertilized fruitlets (April–June) makes aonla an ideal plant for arid and semi-arid conditions. Aonla can be cultivated in marginal soils—slightly acidic to saline/sodic (pH 6.5–9.5) conditions. Heavy soils or high watertable areas are not suited for its cultivation. Varieties

There are 3 main varieties of aonla—Banarasi, Francis (Hathijhool) and Chakaiya. These varieties have their own merits and demerits. Banarasi, an early-maturing aonla, is a shy-bearing, prone to heavy dropping of fruits with poor shelf- life. Francis suffers from severe incidence of fruit necrosis. Chakaiya fruits are fibrous, smaller in size and also have a tendency to bear heavy crop in alternate years. Other varieties identified and released for commercial cultivation are: Kanchan (NA 4)

A seedling selection from Chakaiya, it is heavy and regular bearer (7.7 female flowers/branchlet), with medium-sized fruits, having higher fibre content. It is preferred by industries for pulp extraction and manufacturing of various products. This has been adopted very well in the semi-arid regions of Gujarat and Maharashtra. NA 6

A seedling selection from Chakaiya, it is prolific and heavy-beared (10.8 female flowers/branchlet). It is ideal for preserve and candy, owing to low fibre content. NA 7
A seedling selection of Francis, it is precocious, prolific and regular-bearer (9.7 female flowers/branchlet). This is an ideal variety for preparation of products and has a great promise. Besides, Anand 1, Anand 2 and Anand 3 have been selected as promising strains in Gujarat. [pic]

Propagation and Rootstock
Aonla has long been raised through seeds and inarching. From seed propagation, there is prolonged juvenility and wide variability. On the other hand only limited number of scion shoots are available for inarching owing to upright tree habit. It can be successfully propagated through patch/modified ring budding in north India during mid-May to September with 60–100% success. Besides, Veneer grafting also has successfully been attempted. Considering the...
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