Cult and State in Antiquity

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With reference to the incident of Horatius Cocles on the Pons Sublicius, who was the enemy?

What is pudor? What role did pudor play in the battle between Horatius Cocles and his foes?

Why did Horatius Cocles pray to Tiberine pater? What is particularly significant about the Tiberine part of this? What is particularly significant about the pater part of this?

How was Horatius Cocles rewarded for his heroism? What does this tell us about Livy’s view of ancient Roman values?

What three factors shaped the class system of ancient Rome?

How is civitas (citizenship) like dominium or proprietas (property, proprietorship)?

What Roman citizenship rights did non-Roman Italians not have? How did this situation change after 88 B.C.? Why did it change?

What do patricii (patricians) and plebs or plebeii (plebeians) mean?

How did one become a patrician in early Rome? How could a family become a patrician family in Rome during the period of the Late Republic?

Who were the nobiles?

How did the class of the equites (“cavalrymen” or “knights”) arise?

Who were the publicani?

Why could senatores not be publicani?

After ca. 100 B.C., how did one qualify for membership in the ordo equester, (the equestrian order)? How at this time did one qualify for membership in the ordo senatorius, (the senatorial order)?

What was Cicero’s argument against democracy?

What was the ancient Roman definition of justice, according to the Digest of Justinian?

What was Roman policy regarding corporal punishment for offenses against the law?

When did the legal distinctions between honestiores and humiliores arise? In what historical context? Who were honestiores?

What is pietas?

What is fides?

How was being a citizen of an ancient state like being a member of an extended family?

What does pater patriae mean? Who was the pater patriae? What does the meaning of pater patriae imply about the man who holds this title, and his relationship to the state and to the people?

What is a cliens? What is a patronus? What does clientela mean?

How did patrons in ancient Rome benefit from having clients?

How did individual clients in ancient Rome benefit from having patrons?

How did the Romans and their client-kings benefit from their patron-client relationship?

Why do you think Dionysius of Halicarnassus attributed the origin of the Roman patronage system to Romulus?

What is the salutatio?

What were examples of the downside of being a client in ancient Rome?

What is a centuria? What is the Comitia Centuriata? What is a tribus? What is the Comitia Tributa? Why was the Comitia Centuriata required by law to convene in the Campus Martius, and not in the Forum, as the Comitia Tributa did?

How is the Concilium Plebis like the Comitia Tributa? How are they different?

What is the difference between a lex and a plebiscitum?

Who had the right to propose a law? Who discussed the laws that had been proposed, before they were submitted to a vote? In our own legislatures, committees discuss and amend bills before submitting them to the vote of the legislative body as a whole; in ancient Athens, the Council would enact preliminary decrees and then submit them to the Assembly, a practice they called προβούλευσις (probeuleusis); why does something like probouleusis become necessary in the course of the development of most governments?

Why did Marcus Tullius Cicero disapprove of contiones?

What was Cicero’s opinion of the common people of Rome and Greece?

How did one become a member of the Roman Senatus?

Once a man in ancient Rome became a senator, for how long would he typically remain a member of the Senate?

On what basis was it possible to expel a man from the Senate?

How many members did the Roman Senate have during most of the Republican period?

Did most Roman magistracies have a one-year term? What exceptions were there, if...
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