Cuckoldry and sexual jealousy:
* Cuckoldry occurs when a woman deceives her male partner into investing in offspring conceived with another male. Risks for cuckoldry are high for women (loss of partner death etc) the risks are even higher for men. Cuckolded men lose both invested resources and reproductive opportunity (Platek and Shackelford 2006) * According to the evolutionary approach, all such mate-retention strategies are driven by sexual jealousy: an adaption that evolved in males as a way of dealing with paternal uncertainty. Males could never be 100% that the offspring is their own. One consequence is that a male may invest his resources in offspring that are not his own. * Sexual jealousy serves to help prevent the female mating with other males outside the pair bond, and so it can be seen as an adaptive response. * Sexual coercion (forcing an unwilling partner to have sex) is a tactic used by some males to reduce the risk of cuckoldry. ‘The cuckoldry risk hypothesis’ (Camilleri 2004) predicts that males will be more willing to use sexually coercion tactics such as partner rape when the risk of cuckoldry is high. * According to Lalumiere et al (2005) some men carry out partner rape in order to decrease paternity uncertainty. Thornhill and Thornhill (1992) argue that a woman who resists having sex with her partner signals that she has been unfaithful, thus increases the risk of sexual jealousy and fear of cuckoldry. Mate retention and violence:
* Buss and Shackelford (1997) examined mate-retention tactics in married couples. They studied 214 individuals and found that, compared to women; men reported a significantly higher use of debasement (giving into her every wish) and intra-sexual threats (threating to beat up the other man). Women on the other hand, reported a greater use of verbal possession signals (indicating to other women that he is taken) and threats of punishing infidelity (threating to leave him is he is unfaithful)....
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