Cu2O Synthesis

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TABLES OF CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLE LIST OF FIGURES ABSTRACT ABSTRAK CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction 1.2 Problem of statement 1.3 Scope of study 1.4 Objectives of study 1.5 Organization of thesis CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction 2.1 Introduction to Cu2O 2.2 Application of Cu2O nanopowder 2.2.1 Photocatalyst 2.2.2 Solar energy conversion 2.3 Powder formation 2.4 Gas phase 2.4.1 Inert Gas Condensation (IGC) or Gas Phase Condensation 2.4.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition 2.4.3 Laser ablation 2.4.4 Flame synthesis 2.5 Liquid phase 2.5.1 Solvent evaporation method 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 11 11 11 12 12 13

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2.5.2 Precipitation method 2.5.3 Sol gel 2.6 Solid phase 2.7 Powders formation mechanism 2.7.1 Supersaturated solution 2.7.2 Nucleation and growth 2.7.3 Aggregation 2.8 Synthesis of Cu2O 2.9 Nanoboxes, nanocubes and nanospheres 2. 9.1 Properties of nanoboxes, nanocubes and nanospheres Cu2O 2. 9.2 Synthesis of nanoboxes, nanocubes and nanospheres Cu2O 2.10 Cactuslike Cu2O 2.10.1 Properties of cactuslike Cu2O 2.10.2 Synthesis of cactuslike Cu2O 2.11 Hollow spheres Cu2O 2.11.1 Properties of hollow spheres Cu2O 2.11.2 Synthesis of hollow spheres Cu2O 2.12 Nanowires Cu2O 2.12.1 Properties of nanowires Cu2O 2.12.2 Synthesis of nanowires Cu2O 2.13 Controlled parameters in synthesis of Cu2O 2.13.1 Reaction temperature 2.13.2 Additives 2.13.3 Reducing agents 2.13.4 Capping agents

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CHAPTER 3 – MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction 3.1 Production method 3.2 Raw materials 3.3 Instruments 3.4 Preparation of Cu2O particles 3.4.1 1ST stage : Cu2O production via different type of reducing agent 3.4.2 2nd stage: Cu2O production via different range of temperatures 3.4.3 3rd stage: Cu2O production with capping agent 3.5 Other variable parameters 3.5.1 Methanol as solvent 3.5.2 Ultrasonification 3.5.3 Quenching 3.6 Characterization Cu2O powders 3.6.1. X-Ray Diffraction(XRD) 3.6.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM) 3.6.3 Fourier Transform Infra- Red(FT-IR) 3.6.4 UV-Vis Spectrophotometry 34 34 35 39 39 40 41 42 43 43 46 43 44 44 46 47 47

CHAPTER 4 – RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.0 Introduction 4.1 Mechanism of Cu2O formation 4.2 1st stage - Effect of reducing agents in Cu2O synthesis 4.2.1 X-ray Diffraction analysis using N2H4 as reducing agent 49 49 51 52

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4.2.2 Scanning electron microscopy analysis for N2H4 4.2.3 X-ray Diffraction analysis using NaBH4 as reducing agent 4.2.4 Scanning electron microscopy analysis for NaBH4 4.3 2nd stage – Effect of reaction temperature 4.3.1 X-ray Diffraction analysis 4.3.2 SEM analysis 4.4 Final stage – Effect of capping agent 4.5 UV- Visible light analysis 4.6 FT-IR...
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