CSR in Tourism Industry Md. Abdul Hamid1 Nowadays Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a recurrently pronounced terminology. There is enough scope of ambiguity also in ‘meaning’ of this expression. Generally, the corporate world and researchers emphasize on different focal points. Instead of such vagueness, certainly there are affirmative something in the whole process. Regularly number of socially responsible organizations is increasing and awareness in this issue is rapidly increasing among its stakeholders (e.g. investors, governments, media, and customers). It is tough to specify a period when the sense of CSR evolved. But the researchers primarily tried to draw attention, in 1960s, about the responsibilities of businessmen to society. Gradually the conversation goes ahead and organizations sense its psychosomatic value. And so Multi National Corporations (MNCs), in early stage, welcomed CSR from their strategic point of view. A mentionable number of companies, all forms in nature, are now accumulating them in this pursuit. More than 3000 companies now publish their CSR report on a regular basis, new ones are adding in this stream continuously. Understanding the Term CSR Due to the complex character of the meaning there is not a commonly accepted term, though CSR is widely used globally 1 . The differentiation of terms is linked with the different culture, the different level of development of each country, the different priorities that exist in different regions. We notice that in the preliminary stage of developing this concept, the academicians draw attention to stakeholders that the business organizations are obliged to do ‘something’ for the wellbeing of the society besides their regular trade. Because very often, through their activities, cause harm to the society. And so… the obligation of businessmen is to pursue those politics, to make those decisions, or follow those lines of action which are desirable in terms of the objectives and value of the society (H. R. Bowen, 1953)2. 1
At the beginning of this century, EC starts to express its concern in this issue and develop some pertinent policies. It proclaims, “CSR is a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary 3
(European Commission, Green Paper, 2001) . Occasionally it might be thought that new rules should be introduced, at national and international levels, so that the companies become constrained to accomplish CSR. It’s not accepted by most of the researchers. Because they argue, “CSR is the voluntary commitment of businesses to also include in their business practices, social and environmental activities beyond their legal obligations and are related to those that directly or indirectly are affected by their operations” (Hellenic Network for CSR)4. The most up to date definitions are trying to solve the ambiguity of ‘mandatory’ or ‘voluntary’ by using a decent expression are ‘managing’. somehow One of (at the Because least the organizations execute so morally)
compelled to do but nobody is creating pressure to directly. representative definitions of CSR point out as “CSR is about how companies manage the business processes to produce an overall positive impact on society” (Mallen Baker, 2010) 5 . On the other hand, it is said, “CSR theories apply when an enterprise integrates social demands into its strategies6”
Carroll’s Classification of CSR7 by Nature of Responsibilities
Erasmus Mundus European Master in Tourism Management (EMTM) student under University of Southern Denmark.
The base of responsibility should be ‘economic’ because the investors provide their money to get (at least) logical return at the end of desired period. If executives don’t show reverence to their expectation; once they might become reluctant to prolong the business with such unacquainted organization. Then the existence will...