Books by EDWARD L. BERNAYS
CRYSTALLIZING PUBLIC OPINION (1923) AN OUTLINE OF CAREERS (1927) (Edited and contributed to) PROPAGANDA (1928) SPEAK UP FOR DEMOCRACY (1940) TAKE YOUR PLACE AT THE PEACE TABLE (1945) PUBLIC RELATIONS (1952) THE ENGINEERING OF CONSENT (1955) (Edited and contrib1tted to)
CRYSTALLIZING PUBLIC OPINION
EDWARD L. BERNAYS
Counsel on Public Relations
Former Lecturer on Public Relations and Adjunct Professor Public Relations, New York University. Former Visiting Professor of Public Relations, University of Hawaii. Member, Executive Reserve, U.S.
LIVERIGHT PUBLISHING CORPORATION NEW YORK
Copyright © 1961, by Edward L Bernays Copyright © R 1951, by Edward L. Bernays
Copyright © J923, by Boni & Liveright, Inc,
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review to be printed in a magazine or newspaper.
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Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 61-12133
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES
PREFACE TO NEW EDITION
FOREWORD TO ORIGINAL EDITION .'
PART I-SCOPE AND FUNCTIONS
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THE PUBLIC RELATIONS COUNSEL; THE INCREASED AND INCREASING IMPORTANCE OF
THE PROFESSION III THE FUNCTION OF A SPECIAL PLEADER PART II-THE GROUP AND HERD I WHAT CONSTITUTES PUBLIC OPINION? Is PUBLIC OPINION STUBBORN OR MALLEABLE? THE INTERACTION OF PUBLIC OPINION WITH THE FORCES THAT HELP TO MAKE IT THE POWER OF INTERACTING FORCES THAT Go TO MAKE UP PUBLIC OPINION AN UNDERSTANDING OF T,HE_FuNDAMENTALS OF PUBLIC MOTIVATION Is NECESSARY TO THE WORK OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS
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COUNSEL VI VII THE GROUP AND HERD ARE THE MECHANISMS OF PUBLIC CRANGE BASIC
THE ApPLICATION OF THESE PRINCIPLES PART III-TECHNIQUE AND METHOD
THE PUBLIC CAN BE REACHED ONLY THROUGH ESTABLISHED MEDIUMS OF COMMUNICATION
THE INTERLAPPING GROUP FORMATIONS OF SOCIETY, THE CONTI:rUOUS SHIFTING OF GROUPS, CHANGING CONDITIONS AND THE FLEXIBILITY OF HUMAN NATURE ARE ALL AIDS TO THE COUNSEL ON PUBLIC RELATIONS
PREFACE TO NEW EDITION
When Crystallizing Public Opinion was written in 1923, it became the first book-length discussion of the scope and function of professional public relations and of its practitioner, the counsel on public relations. In it I described an activity which concerns itself with the relations between an enterprise and the publics which it serves, and on which it is dependent. I pointed out that good public relations depend on action which results in social behavior by business and other activities and thus the establishment of a cooperative relationship with the public. The counsel advises on, and to some extent directs and supervises activities which affect the public. He interprets the client to the public and the public to the client. Simply stated, his function is to bring about adjustment and understanding between enterprises and the people on whom they are dependent. He gives advice on the formulation of attitudes and actions which will win public favor and procedures by which they may be brought to public attention, The profession of public relations establishes a common meeting ground for an entity (whether a iii
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AN OUTLINE OF METHODS PRACTICABLE IN MODIFYING THE POINT OF VIEW OF A GROUP PART IV-ETHICAL...