"Crossing The Swamp" by Mary Oliver

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The poem, Crossing the Swamp is a well organized work of literature, which uses many techniques to develop the relationship between the speaker and the swamp. Some of these techniques include diction, narrative structure, repetition, imagery, personification, tonal shift, as well as many interesting sound devices.

Before the scrutinizing search for the figurative language begins, the first thing that is noticeable is the narrative structure. The speaker provides us with the image of the characters footsteps itself through the structure of the poem, which indicates the struggle that he is going through by the gaps and indents throughout.

Because of the thoughtful syntax of the poem, we cannot refer the body as stanzas or paragraphs; thus, the poem itself is one broken stanza which includes the characters adventurous journey and appalled misery. At the beginning of the poem, (line 5), the cacophonic sounds like branching, burred, belching bogs are used to describe the ugly sounds of the swamp as the character takes a step forward. The repetition of Here is also very unique because it is emphasizing the location of where the character is being tortured by having to walk into this ruthless swamp.

The sound devices include consonance and rhythm with the repetition of the end sounds of pathless, seamless, and peerless. The foothold, fingerhold, mindhold can be consonance as well as alliteration, as foothold and fingerhold both begin with the same sound. Alliteration also presents itself in lines 18 and 19 with such slick and hipholes, hummocks. There is another cacophonic sound in lines 21 and 22 as the speaker describes the image of the swamp with hatred, calling it a black, slack earthsoup. This diction will also be considered as imagery as it compares the swamp with earthsoup.

The tonal shift in the poem begins on line 22, with the sentence I feel not wet so much as painted and glittered From this point on, the speaker doesnt sound as frustrated and...
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