Cross-Cultural Organizational Behavior

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Cross-Cultural Organizational Behavior
Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2007.58:479-514. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by University Of Maryland on 12/11/06. For personal use only.

Michele J. Gelfand,1 Miriam Erez,2 and Zeynep Aycan3
1

Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742; email: mgelfand@psyc.umd.edu Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa, Israel 32000; email: merez@ie.technion.ac.il Department of Psychology, Koc University, Sariyer, Istanbul, Turkey 34450; email: zaycan@ku.edu.tr

2

3

Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2007. 58:479–514 First published online as a Review in Advance on October 17, 2006 The Annual Review of Psychology is online at http://psych.annualreviews.org This article’s doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085559 Copyright c 2007 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 0066-4308/07/0203-0479$20.00

Key Words
culture, management, organizations, work

Abstract
This article reviews research on cross-cultural organizational behavior (OB). After a brief review of the history of cross-cultural OB, we review research on work motivation, or the factors that energize, direct, and sustain effort across cultures. We next consider the relationship between the individual and the organization, and review research on culture and organizational commitment, psychological contracts, justice, citizenship behavior, and person-environment fit. Thereafter, we consider how individuals manage their interdependence in organizations, and review research on culture and negotiation and disputing, teams, and leadership, followed by research on managing across borders and expatriation. The review shows that developmentally, cross-cultural research in OB is coming of age. Yet we also highlight critical challenges for future research, including moving beyond values to explain cultural differences, attending to levels of analysis issues, incorporating social and organizational context factors into cross-cultural research, taking indigenous perspectives seriously, and moving beyond intracultural comparisons to understand the dynamics of cross-cultural interfaces.

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Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A BRIEF HISTORY OF CROSS-CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CULTURE AND WORK MOTIVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture and Personal Motives . . . . . Culture and Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture and Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture and Rewards . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture and Job and Organizational Characteristics . Culture and Job Satisfaction . . . . . . CULTURE AND THE NATURE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATION . . . . . . . . . Culture and Organizational Commitment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture and Psychological Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture and Organizational Justice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture and Organizational Citizenship Behavior . . . . . . . . . . Culture and Person-Environment Fit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CULTURE AND NEGOTIATION/ DISPUTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture and Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . 480 Culture and Disputing . . . . . . . . . . . . CULTURE AND TEAMS . . . . . . . . . . Culture and Attitudes About Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture and Team Processes . . . . . . Multicultural Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP . . . Culture as a Main Effect on Leaders and Followers . . . . . . . . . Culture as a Moderator of Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emic Dimensions of Leadership and Leadership in a Multicultural Context . . . . . . . . . EXPATRIATE MANAGEMENT . . . Expatriate Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . Expatriate Attitudes and Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OVERALL CONCLUSIONS AND RESEARCH DIRECTIONS . . ....
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