January 8, 2013
Kraft (2013), "Sadness is a short adjustment period. Depression is a long term illness.” What exactly depression is in clearly defined terms and where this disease comes from is something that has been left to discussion for some time. Butcher, Mineka, and Hooley (2013) make it clear to be aware of the cultural and historical context before making labels. However, 350 million depression diagnoses from all age groups suffer globally (World Health Organization, 2012). There are some factors that stretch across cultures and would affect the most impressionable of all human beings. Those individuals are children, and the factors are social economic status. Chronic stress, socioeconomic status (SES), and self-efficacy have a strong correlation with depression. Chronic stress is a stimulus that occurs in life and like the difference between sadness and depression; it does not come and go. There may be times when the materials that are necessary to live and function are not readily available for a culture, family, or much less a child. There are homeless children in Morocco, lack of social services in a city in Costa Rica, and parents still dying of HIV/AIDS in Kilimanjaro (Cross-Cultural Solutions, 2012). These examples are extreme, but the fact is that when the stressor does not relent then biological and psychological ware will happen (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2013).
An emphasis on the mastery of one’s environment s more typical of highly technologically developed societies; other cultures emphasize harmony and natural order. Looking beyond the way that each culture functions there shows some commonality across cultures that would be conducive to the illness of depression. The prevalence of poverty contributing to depression is growing with an ever more technological world. “There are millions who are able to save but there are billions who have...