* polychronic and monochromic business cultures
* reserved and expressive business cultures
We present each set of attributes in a table to simplify the content: Relationship-focused business cultures| Deal-focused business cultures| People are usually reluctant to do business withstrangers.| An openness to talking business with strangers.| Make initial contact indirectly: at trade shows,on official trade missions or via intermediaries,introductions and referrals.| Though introductions and referrals are alwayshelpful, it is generally possible to contact potentialcustomers or business partners directly.| At meetings, take plenty of time to build trustand rapport before getting down to business.| At meetings, people get down to business after justa few minutes of general conversation.| It is important to maintain harmony, avoidconflict and confrontation during discussions.| When communicating, the priority is clarity ofunderstanding. Little thought is given to maintaining harmony with counterparts during negotiations.| Negotiators tend to be sensitive to issues of "face", dignity, self-respect.| Little attention paid to issues of "face"| A preference for indirect, high-contextcommunication to avoid offending others.| Expect direct, frank, low-context communicationmost of the time.| Effective communication and problem-solvingrequire frequent face-to face contacts.| Much communication and problem-solving handledvia telephone, fax and e-mail rather than in face-tofacemeetings.| Lawyers are usually kept in the backgroundduring negotiations.| Lawyers are often seated at the negotiating table.| A reliance on close relationships rather thancontracts to resolve disagreements.| A reliance on written agreements rather thanpersonal relationships to resolve disagreements.|
Formal, hierarchical business cultures| Informal, egalitarian business cultures| Formality in interpersonal communication is animportant way of showing respect.| Informal behavior is not regarded as disrespectful.| Status differences are valued and tend to belarger than in egalitarian societies.| People are uncomfortable with obvious statusdifferences, which are smaller than in hierarchicalsocieties.| Expect to address counterparts by family nameand title rather than by given name.| Expect to address most counterparts by given namerather than surname and title shortly after meetingthem.| Protocol rituals are often numerous andelaborate.| Protocol rituals are relatively few and simple.|
Polychronic business cultures| Monochronic business cultures| People and relationships are more importantthan punctuality and precise scheduling.| Punctuality and schedules are very important tobusiness people.| Schedules and deadlines tend to be quiteflexible.| Schedules and deadlines tend to be rigid.| Meetings are frequently interrupted.| Meetings are seldom interrupted|
Reserved business cultures| Expressive business cultures| People speak more softly, interrupt each lessother and are more comfortable with silencethan is the case in expressive cultures.| People often speak quite loudly, engage inconversational overlap and are uncomfortable withsilence.| Expect interpersonal distance of about an arm'slength and little physical contact aside fromthe handshake.| Expect interpersonal distance of half an arm's lengthor less and considerable physical touching.| Avoid intense, continuous eye contact acrossthe negotiating table.| Direct, even intense eye contact across the negotiatingtable signals interest and sincerity.| Expect very few hand and arm gestures andrestrained facial expression.| Expect lively facial expressions along with...