7. Richard R. Gesteland is the author of a cross-cultural business behavior model. In his model he names 4 set of attributes. Each set has 2 contrary traits. We have: * relationship-focused and deal-focused business cultures * formal and informal business cultures
* polychronic and monochromic business cultures
* reserved and expressive business cultures
We present each set of attributes in a table to simplify the content: Relationship-focused business cultures
| Deal-focused business cultures
| People are usually reluctant to do business withstrangers.
| An openness to talking business with strangers.
| Make initial contact indirectly: at trade shows,on official trade missions or via intermediaries,introductions and referrals.
| Though introductions and referrals are alwayshelpful, it is generally possible to contact potentialcustomers or business partners directly.
| At meetings, take plenty of time to build trustand rapport before getting down to business.
| At meetings, people get down to business after justa few minutes of general conversation.
| It is important to maintain harmony, avoidconflict and confrontation during discussions.
| When communicating, the priority is clarity ofunderstanding. Little thought is given to maintaining harmony with counterparts during negotiations.
| Negotiators tend to be sensitive to issues of "face", dignity, self-respect.
| Little attention paid to issues of "face"
| A preference for indirect, high-contextcommunication to avoid offending others.
| Expect direct, frank, low-context communicationmost of the time.
| Effective communication and problem-solvingrequire frequent face-to face contacts.
| Much communication and problem-solving handledvia telephone, fax and e-mail rather than in face-tofacemeetings.
| Lawyers are usually kept in the backgroundduring negotiations.
| Lawyers are often seated at the negotiating table.
| A reliance on close relationships rather thancontracts to resolve disagreements.
| A reliance on written agreements rather thanpersonal relationships to resolve disagreements.
Formal, hierarchical business cultures
| Informal, egalitarian business cultures
| Formality in interpersonal communication is animportant way of showing respect.
| Informal behavior is not regarded as disrespectful.
| Status differences are valued and tend to belarger than in egalitarian societies.
| People are uncomfortable with obvious statusdifferences, which are smaller than in hierarchicalsocieties.
| Expect to address counterparts by family nameand title rather than by given name.
| Expect to address most counterparts by given namerather than surname and title shortly after meetingthem.
| Protocol rituals are often numerous andelaborate.
| Protocol rituals are relatively few and simple.
Polychronic business cultures
| Monochronic business cultures
| People and relationships are more importantthan punctuality and precise scheduling.
| Punctuality and schedules are very important tobusiness people.
| Schedules and deadlines tend to be quiteflexible.
| Schedules and deadlines tend to be rigid.
| Meetings are frequently interrupted.
| Meetings are seldom interrupted
Reserved business cultures
| Expressive business cultures
| People speak more softly, interrupt each lessother and are more comfortable with silencethan is the case in expressive cultures.
| People often speak quite loudly, engage inconversational overlap and are uncomfortable withsilence.
| Expect interpersonal distance of about an arm'slength and little physical contact aside fromthe handshake.
| Expect interpersonal distance of half an arm's lengthor less and considerable physical touching.
| Avoid intense, continuous eye contact acrossthe negotiating table.
| Direct, even intense eye contact across the negotiatingtable signals interest and sincerity.
| Expect very few hand and arm gestures andrestrained facial expression.
| Expect lively facial expressions along with...
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