* cross-cultural aspects of marketing mix (products, price, promotion, and distribution) * cross-cultural marketing education and professional training * cross-cultural practice in electronic marketing
Cross-cultural marketing can be seen as the strategic process of marketing among consumers whose culture differs from that of the marketer’s own culture at least in one of the fundamental cultural aspects, such as language, religion, social norms and values, education, and the living style. From the anthropological perspective all market behaviours are culture-bound. Therefore, in order to match the marketing mix with consumer preferences, purchasing behavior, and product-use patterns in a potential market, marketers must have a thorough understanding of the cultural environment of that market. Some Real World Examples for Cross-cultural Marketing
To what extent culture of a particular market place has influenced the marketing practices of business corporate can be understood by analyzing each element of the marketing mix (4 Ps’ i.e. product, price, promotion and place). (1)Product
* Pizza Hut and Domino’s in India
1992: Paneer on a pizza!
1997: Paneer on a pizza?
2002: Paneer on a pizza.
Same statement, same concept but the noticeable thing is the change in the attitude. It started from “absolute disbelief” to “why not” to “calm acceptance”. It shows how foreign based multinational companies have changed their product according to the taste of the indigenous of a country. In this case one element of the marketing mix, product has been changed to cope up with the existing culturally bound taste of Indians. Pizza Hut and Domino’s now serve Tandoori, Paneer and Chettinad toppings which are absolutely new menu for these MNCs but culturally accepted traditional foodstuffs for Indians. * Maggi in India
Noodles were alright for dinner once in a while and it is accepted in other countries as well but it was unsuccessful in India. Since Indians consider idly, dosa, chappathi, etc as their dinner menu. Then Maggi wanted another marketing strategy to sell its product and it marketed Maggi as a snack not as a dinner and succeeded in the market. This also reveals how culturally bounded practices impact the marketing strategies. They also went along with curry flavour, tomato flavour, etc in India. * Swarovski in India
Swarovski is a Czech Republic based crystal venture incorporated in 1895. Swarovski India (Pvt) Ltd faced a difficulty in marketing crystals in India primarily. In the European and Western countries crystal is considered as a valuable gift item and initially they marketed their crystal as in the same manner in India but they struggled to capture the market due to the existing cultural aspects. Indians had a sentiment about gold...