Crop Production and Management

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1. Crop Production and Management
 Crop: When same kinds of plants are cultivated on a large scale, it is called crop. It is of two types.  Kharif crops – Crops that are sown in rainy season (June to September). Examples – soyabean, paddy, maize  Rabi crops – Crops that are grown during winter season (October to March). Examples – wheat, gram, pea  Basic crop production practices  Preparation of soil  Sowing  Adding manure and fertilizers  Irrigation  Protection from weeds (weeding)  Harvesting  Storage Preparation of soil: Loosening and upturning of the soil. This process is known as tilling or ploughing.  Implements used in ploughing  Plough o It is made up of wood and contains two parts. (i) Ploughshare (strong triangular strip of iron) (ii) Plough shaft (main wooden axis of plough) o Driven with the help of animals o Brings nutrient rich soil to the top o Helps in aeration of the soil  Hoe o Consists of long rod of wood or iron o Contains strong, broad, and bent plate of iron at one of its end o Driven with the help of animals o Used for removing weeds and loosening the soil  Cultivator o Modern method of ploughing o It is carried out with the help of a tractor Sowing  Placing of seeds of a crop in the soil is called sowing.

 Seeds of good quality and health must be used in order to produce healthy crop plants.  Tools used in sowing  Traditional tool o Funnel-shaped o Seeds are placed in soil with the help of a long pipe with sharp ends o This tool is driven by a plough  Seed drill o Contains funnel-shaped receptacle with a set of uniformly arranged tubes o Seeds are uniformly placed in soil at a proper depth. o Driven with the help of a tractor Addition of Manure and Fertilizers  It supplies plants with essential nutrients for growth and development  Manures o Prepared from decomposed animals and plant waste. o Provides organic matter and humus to the soil but is less rich in plant nutrients o Enhances the water holding capacity...
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