Consider the following criminological conclusions and recommendations to reduce crime and protect victims.
1. The risk of crime and victimization to Canadians and its costs to taxpayers and to victims
According to the Institute for Prevention of Crime (2009), for every 1,000,000 Canadians there are 60,000 victims of assault, 16,000 victims of sexual assault, and 18,000 victims of theft from or of cars. These statistics are limited because they come from police recorded data. Statistics Canada surveys show that less than 50% of victims report to the police. Additionally, there are 600 recorded homicides annually. Approximately, 100-120 of these homicides are related to handguns and gangs. This gang related violence has increased drastically from the 1990’s. Crime rates have been relatively stable over a ten-year period for sexual and physical assaults, robberies, break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, theft of house property, and vandalism.
The cost of crime to taxpayers and to victims can be measured using three aspects. The first aspect is physical injury, the second aspect is trauma, and the third aspect is financial lost. The Department of Justice estimates that the total cost of crime to victims in Canada is over $83 billion annually just for corrections. Police protection and judicial costs taxpayers and victims an additional $121 billion and $55 billion annually. Each police officer costs taxpayers and victims roughly $100,000 annually. Similarly, taxpayers and victims pay around $100,000 to incarcerate one male inmate annually. These estimates come from police recorded data and are therefore not perfectly accurate
2. The causes and proven ways to reduce youth involvement in interpersonal crime
The causes of interpersonal crime all point directly to our Canadian youth. Risk factors for future offenders are as follows:
“Be born into a family in relative poverty and inadequate housing, Be brought up with inconsistent and uncaring parenting, including violence, Show limited social and cognitive abilities,
Show behavioral problems identified in primary school,
Be excluded from or drop out of secondary school,
Live with a culture of violence on television and in the neighbourhood, and Be frequently unemployed and have relatively limited income as a young adult”(Waller,2014, p.19)
Other risk factors of child development as it relates to youths and family include neglect, abuse, conflict, lack of supervision, and lack of bonding. Risk factors of child development as it relates to youths and school include academic failure, truancy, dropping out, low investment, and early misbehavior. Risk factors of child development as it relates to youths and the individual include substance misuse and abuse, low motivation, aggressive behavior, poor self-management, and limited social skills. Risk factors of child development as it relates to youths and neighborhoods include disorganization, extreme poverty, drug and gun presence, poor living conditions, and low social capital. Risk factors of child development as it relates to youths and the individual’s peers include delinquent friends, gang membership, alienation, and a lack of pro-social role models.
A few examples of proven crime prevention programs that reduce youth involvement in interpersonal crime are the positive parenting program, the Perry preschool program, the SNAP (stop now and plan) program, the youth inclusion program, youth mentoring programs such as Big Brothers Big Sisters, as well as life skills training.
These programs are highly beneficial for youths with results such as the Perry preschool program kids were less likely to be arrested by age 40 and the youth inclusion program reduced youth arrests by 65%. These figures can be accurately trusted at they are the result of a random control trial with a sample of 123 total participants.
3. Ways to improve the effectiveness of policing, including one strategy...
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