One of the first prison systems was called the Pennsylvania System. The ideology of this system was used in the Eastern State Penitentiary in the early 1800s. This system had very definite ideas on how a prison should be organized and managed. The operation of this prison was based on the following 5 general principles (Clear, Cole, & Reisig, 2006): 1. Do not treat prisoners harshly, but instruct them that hard and selective forms of suffering could change their lives. 2. Solitary confinement will prevent further corruption.
3. Offenders should reflect on their transgressions and repent. 4. Solitary confinement is considered punishment.
5. Solitary confinement is economical.
The Quakers are the ones that actually formed these ideas, due to the fact they wanted more human treatment for criminals. I believe that the five principles were implemented due to the kind of treatment that the criminals were getting at that time period. “Until the late 1700's, criminals were put to death, shipped to other countries to become slaves, and were thrown to wild animals just so society could literally get rid of them.” (http://voices.yahoo.com/the-early-american-correction-system-326781.html?cat=17) Then when the Pennsylvania system took hold the prisoners were able to carry out a certain amount of time in jail instead of getting hung/ killed. At the time this system took hold it was believed that the prisoners needed a strict punishment that way they could repent and become closer with the lord. Some punishments or correctional alternatives would have been: * Work in the prison
* Cell blocks
* Solitary confinement
* Early release for hard work and good behavior( this was created by Alexander Maconochie) * Parole
* Education classes
Then around the 1930's there was a medical approach introduced. " A model of correction based on the assumption that criminal behavior is caused by social, psychological, or biological deficiencies that require treatment" (Clear & Cole, 2000,p.47). During this time rehabilitation was the theory and punishment was no longer the idea. These punishments or correctional aspects have done a great deal to the effects upon the prisoners. For the punishment of solitary confinement, this can go both ways. In one way if you put an individual in confinement they have time to think about the crime that they have committed and can give a good hard look at their life. Then on the other hand if you put someone in confinement where there is no noise, no light, and nothing to do this person can go mentally insane. When it began it was for the hardest criminals it has changed now a days to you get confinement for doing another crime in prison, being a disturbance, and/or refusing to do a request for the guards such as take a sheet off you window so they are able to see in on what you are doing, that way they can tell if you are okay or trying to do something illegal in prison. This would include drugs, wine, shanks, etc. also they are able to tell your mental state, if you are in imminent danger from yourself. The aspect on working in prison has changed but only for the safety of the prisoners and guards. If helped some of the prisoners have something to do during the day, a way for them to be productive. Then on the other hand in the beginning they were forced to work no matter if they liked it or not, there were even stories of them being sold as slaves. Cell blocks in the beginning were huge; they had a restroom, bed, work area, and exercise space. Now the cell blocks are around 4 foot by 7 foot. Parole has in general stayed the same. If the individual stays out of trouble and exceeds there expectations then the individual can be counted as qualified for parole. Now not only does the warden but individuals the inmate is around. Also the victims regarding the crime the inmate has been found guilty regarding, their opinion can be weighed in this decision. The...