Dr Bourke's data's were extracted from the various studies conducted between 1963 -1990 which is quite outdated . The report stressed mainly on the implications and level of poverty in the rural areas than urban areas. According to the research, Papua New Guineans were categorized into three classes: 1)Poorest
The poorest were 18.4% ,less poor -42.3% and the least poor was 39.2% of the total population of P.N.G..The latter, as stated in the article were from the rural villages.In my opinion i think those people are having some kind of access to basic developments may be because they were assisted by the government in terms of health ,education ,improved diet through subsidizing subsistence farming of home grown foods and other infrastructures. However on a bigger scale we are still categorized as one of the poverty stricken nation in the pacific.
According to Dr Bourke,'The implications of poverty in PNG were as result of low cash income,inaccessibility to health facilities,and limited access to secondary or tertiary education and the limited access to market.I strongly support this because it is a reality for the most remotest parts of Papua New Guinea including rural areas where the location is a barrier for them to have access to the basic services such as employment, health, education and trade.One of the classic example is where i come from,(chimbu province) a district called Karamuvi is living in extreme poverty even though they have the land to produce food crops they don't have the markets to sell their surplus for money.They can not go to school or get proper health treatment because they don't have money as well as isolated from the main health centres. Currently there is only one form of transport linking to this place, is through airplanes. Therefore i define poverty as a situation in which people are not having access to the basic services.In addition ,Wikipedia,the free encyclopedia on line, defines Poverty as: the condition of not having the means to afford basic human needs such as clean water,health care,nutrition,clothing and shelter.
Dr Bourke said; that “PNG has an overall life expectancy rate of 54 years while the worse provinces of Sandaun and Gulf provinces have an average of 46 years life expectancy rate”.Generally speaking i think he is absolutely right because since 1963 when the research was first carried out to (21st )this century there wasn't any great improvements in the life expectancy rates of the Papua New Guineans. The current life expectancy rate is still below (54-57 years )60 years:world development indicators-2009.However they are certain people living over the age of 70 years and above simply because of improved health services, healthy diet,and Physical fitness.For example they were two particular colonial leaders in my district who lived up to the age of 101.They were interviewed and asked how they lived their lives and this is what they said,''Mitupla save kaikai fresh kaikai long garden na abuse bilong wara na bus tasol na save waswas olgeta de na wok na malolo gut na taim mitupla i sik mitupla save tokim ol pikinini blo mitupla kisim mitupla go long bikpla haus sik.” Another obvious example is Sir Micheal Somare and Grand Chief Palius Matane ,they are over the age of 70 years.
The research further indicated that PNG has the highest infant mortality rate of 73/1000 births and has the highest maternal death rates of 930 every pregnancy,which means that every mother who is pregnant has about 1% chances of surviving due to birth complication.In comparison with the current situation...