Written by Frederick Winslow Taylor, who was called "The Father of Scientific Management” (Wrege &Greenwood, 1991). Taylor was the most influential person of the time and he has had an impact on management until this day. His innovation in engineering helped improving productivity, which called The Taylor System of Scientific Management (Copley, 1969), which is depends on scientific methods to manage any factory (Wikipedia). Taylor came from wealthy family. He was born on March 20, 1856 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. And died in 1915(Copley, 1969). In 1872, he was sent to Exeter Academy in Philips to be prepared for Harvard University. However, Taylor passed the Harvard University examination with honors. His eyes affected, as a result of his hard study at night. This required him to have a rest from reading. So he worked in Philadelphia for four years in a small machine shop (Copley, 1969; Greenwood, 1991).
In 1878, he stared working as a laborer for a big company called Midvale Steel Works (Copley, 1969). Taylor quickly progressed from laborer to foreman for the company, then chief engineer (Wrege &Greenwood, 1991). In 1881, He developed studies about time-motion (net). In 1883, Taylor graduate from Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey, with Mechanical Engineering degree (Wrege &Greenwood, 1991). Critique
The author begins this article with major fact that faces the civilize world. With almost all workmen believed that it is better to turn out little outputs for the salary they get. The reason of their believed is that if they increase their efficiency “double their output”, half of the worker will be without job by the end of the year. Taylor argued the effect of any labor-saving device at any work. The universal result for this phenomenon was that provide more work for people in this trade. He gave an example for that the cotton industry. Around 1780, when the power loom invented, the weaver of Manchester, England, know it is coming. Since the power loom turn out three times what those weaver turn in a day, all Manchester weaver decided to destroy all these machine. Now day, there are 265,000 weavers in Manchester after the labor-saving device come, comparing with 5,000 in 1840. This shows how this invention provided more jobs (Natemeyer & McMahon, 2001). Taylor gives another example; a pen manufactory, who has one workman. And this worker turns out ten pens every day for $2.50 a day. One day the foreman come and asked the worker to double his output for $5 a day, the workman accepted his offer. Everyone was happy with that. However, one day one of the directors saw the payroll, but he didn’t like what he sees. The director asked the foreman to cut the price down to the standard rate of wages which is $2.50 a day. From that day, the workman decided that he will never makes enough pens in the future to get his salary cut again. In this example you can’t blame ether one the directors, nor the workman. It is just a bad luck in industry (Natemeyer & McMahon, 2001). The author mention that there is no one in the world invented scientific management. It is not a new theories, it is an evolution. In reality, we see how the practice comes before the theory not after it. Now days, we can see how scientific management is in use in almost every industry in the U.S. there are many benefits for the workmen who work under scientific management; an increase from 33 to 100 per cent in their salary; more important the good relationship with their employers. On the other hand, the management will get what they want, the large profit (Natemeyer & McMahon, 2001). However, scientific management exists when complete mental revolutions accrue in the work place on both management and workmen. The manager should give his workmen a special motivation, if he wants them to do their best for the good of his firm. In the book, Classics of Organization Behavior, Frederick Herzberg mention some ways to...
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