Critique Nursing Research Sample

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INTRODUCTION TO CHINESE “PINYIN” SYSTEM

汉语拼音 Hàn yǔ pīn yīn

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汉语拼音(hàn yǔ pīn yīn)
1)Han Yu Pin Yin is the phonetic system for Chinese Language. 2)In Chinese language, a syllable is a phonetic unit and usually stands as a word with meaning expressed by a Chinese character. 3) 1 word, 1 syllable. 2

汉语拼音(hàn yǔ pīn yīn)
4)Normally, there are three elements of a
Chinese syllable, Initials (consonants), Finals (vowels) and Tones. -For example: Initial + Final + tone (consonant) (Vowel)

+

i

+ v

v = Ni (1 word,



1 syllable)

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汉语拼音(hàn yǔ pīn yīn) 5) But, some Chinese syllable only have Finals (vowels) and Tones. -For example:

Initial

Final

Final +
an
+

tone
-

=

ān

(安)
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(1 word, 1 syllable)

A. Shēngmǔ (21 Initial)
Un-aspirated initial Aspirated initial

o e

i -i

b d g j zh z

p t k q ch c

m n h x sh s

f l

r

1) Aspirated initial (a strong burst of flows out) 2) Un-aspirated initial (a weak burst of air flows out) 11/8/2012

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special or silent initials

1 w wa, wo, wu,wai, wei,

wan, wen, wang, weng -ya, yi, yao, ye, you, yan, yin, yang, ying, yong, -yu,yue,yuan,yun (all the “u” are sound “ü” )
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2 y

B. Yùnmǔ (Finals)
1) 3 types of finals in Chinese syllables
(a)Simple finals (b)Compound finals

(c)Finals with Nasal Endings.

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3 types of Finals
i u
ua uo ie(ê) uai uei iao iou ian in iang ing iong uan uen uang ueng 8

ü

Simple Finals

a o e ai

ia

üe(ê)

Compound Finals
Nasal Finals
11/8/2012

ei ao ou an en ang eng ong

üan ün

6 major finals
Finals a o e i u ü ê
11/8/2012

B.Malaysia a yam o rang e mak i kan u lar e nak
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The final with only one vowel.

3 special finals

er -i [ s] zhi, chi, shi, ri -i [ ] zi, ci, si
11/8/2012



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35 Finals 1. a a an ang ai ao
2.

Vo kal

o o ou ong

3. 4. 5. 6.

e e en eng ei i i ia iao ie iu ian in iang ing iong u u ua uo uai ui uan un uang ueng 11/8/2012

ü ü üe üan ün

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C.Tone(shēng diào)
1)Chinese is a tone language. 2)The Chinese language has four tones plus a neutral tone. For example: mā má mC mà 妈 麻 马 骂 (mother) (hemp) (horse) (to scold)

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Tone
3)Tones are important parts of the meaning of words. 4)The tone of each sound differentiates meaning. For example: Kǎnshù Kànshū

看书

砍树
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4 Tone
5

1st tone (55)
4

2nd tone (35)
3 2

3rd tone (214) 4th tone (51)
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1

Tone Marks 调号(diàohào)
st 1 nd 2 rd 3

tone  tone  tone 

4th tone 
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Sound Discrimination
• • • • • • 八(bā) 披(pī) 波(bō) 铺(pū) 马(mǎ) 笔(bǐ) —趴(pā) —逼(bī) —坡(pō) —夫(fū) —法(fǎ) —匹(pǐ) 步(bù)—瀑(pù) 必(bì)—密(mì) 发(fā)— 大(dà)

11/8/2012

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How to Placing the tone marks?

标调 biAodiDo
-Tone

marks are placed on the main vowel. The basic rules are: 1. When there is an “a”, mark on “a”: mA 妈 ( mother ) mBo 毛 ( hair ) huA 花 ( flower )

标调 biAodiDo
2. For compound finals and nasal finals, place according to the sequence of a, o, e: b
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