The purpose of this essay is to critically analyse a health education resource, to show knowledge and understanding of the use of health behaviour models and to understand the concept of health promotion. The health education resource chosen by the author is presented in the form of a leaflet promoting breast awareness. Health promotion is "any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organisational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conductive to the health of individuals, groups and communities". (Joint Committee, 2001, p.101). The purpose of health promotion is to encourage the adoption of "healthy" behaviours. Health promotion is made up of 3 main concepts, which are Health education, Health protection and Prevention of disease, these also referred to as the health triad. There are many factors which may affect the implementation of health promotion, these are: educational background, sociocultural contexts, demographic position, attitudes, behaviour, socioeconomic groups and beliefs. Health promotion is also cost beneficial, although it appears to cost money, society saves money in the long run because treatment costs more than disease prevention, health protection and health education. Even though health promotion was being practiced in the 18th century, the most relevant changes have occurred in the past 20 years, this is primarily due to a change in the emphasis of health care. Health become more about prevention of illness rather than treatment in the early 1980's, this paradigm shift in emphasis is directly related to cost benefits from health promotion and the change of responsibility for health onto the individual rather than the establishment (Health professionals). Health has been defined as: "a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and merely the absence of disease or infirmity". Health consists of five dimensions, which are: Physical health, Emotional health, Social health, Mental health and Spiritual health.
Health promotion is a fundamental component of the health care systems. The health promotion relies on the health triad model, which consists of 3main domains as mentioned above in the introduction. The author will now go into more detail about these three domains. Health education - All aspects of positive health education are comprised in the domain. This includes helping individuals, groups or communities develop positive health impute, such as self-esteem and life skills by influencing behaviour (Butler, 2001).
Health Protection - This domain focuses on the increase of positive health and the prevention of ill health. It also comprises regulations and policies (Downie et al 1998).
Disease Prevention - Planning and measures taken to stop disease or health problems before health event occur. This domain is split into three levels of prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary prevention - seeks to stop the onset of illness or injury during the pre-pathogenesis period.
Secondary prevention measures leads to early diagnosis therefore treatment can be carried out promptly to prevent more severe pathogenesis.
Tertiary prevention measures focus on the rehabilitation following significant pathogenesis, the role of tertiary prevention is to limit the affects of the pathogenesis has on individual's lives (Cottrell et al 2002).
A model is a framework used as a tool in health promotion to plan actions. Health behaviour is the focus of health promotion models, is to promote health successfully the models purpose is to promote a change in the individuals behaviours or to adopt new behaviours. Behaviours are modified by a number of internal and external factors, such as demographic variables e.g. gender, age, socio-psychological variables e.g. personality, social class and structural variables e.g. Knowledge about disease (Butler, 2001). There are numerous models used in health promotion but the...
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