Criticism is the practice of judging the merits and faults of something or someone in a sometimes negative, sometimes intelligible, (or articulate) way. The judger is called "the critic".
To engage in criticism is "to criticize".
One specific item of criticism is called "a criticism" or a "critique". This article provides only general information about criticism. For subject-specific information, see the Varieties of criticism page. Criticism can be:
directed toward a person or an animal; at a group, authority or organization; at a specific behaviour; or at an object of some kind (an idea, a relationship, a condition, a process, or a thing). personal (delivered directly from one person to another, in a personal capacity), or impersonal (expressing the view of an organization, and not aimed at anyone personally). highly specific and detailed, or very abstract and general.
verbal (expressed in language) or non-verbal (expressed symbolically, or expressed through an action or a way of behaving). explicit (the criticism is clearly stated) or implicit (a criticism is implied by what is being said, but it is not stated openly). the result of critical thinking or spontaneous impulse.
To criticize does not necessarily imply "to find fault", but the word is often taken to mean the simple expression of an objection against prejudice, or a disapproval. Often criticism involves active disagreement, but it may only mean "taking sides". It could just be an exploration of the different sides of an issue. Fighting is not necessarily involved. Criticism is often presented as something unpleasant, but it need not be. It could be friendly criticism, amicably discussed, and some people find great pleasure in criticism ("keeping people sharp", "providing the critical edge"). The Pulitzer Prize for Criticism has been presented since 1970 to a newspaper writer who has demonstrated 'distinguished criticism'. Another meaning of criticism is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature, artwork, film, and social trends (see the article links below). The goal of this type of criticism is to understand the possible meanings of cultural phenomena, and the context in which they take shape. In so doing, the attempt is often made to evaluate how cultural productions relate to other cultural productions, and what their place is within a particular genre, or a particular cultural tradition. Criticism as an evaluative or corrective exercise can occur in any area of human life. Criticism can therefore take many different forms. How exactly people go about criticizing, can vary a great deal. In specific areas of human endeavour, the form of criticism can be highly specialized and technical; it often requires professional knowledge to understand the criticism. Contents
1.1 Early English meaning
1.2 20th century
1.3 21st century
2 Criticism classification
3 The psychology of criticism
3.1 Area of study
3.2 The most basic rule
3.2.3 Exception to the rule
3.3 Learning to criticize
3.5 Effect on others
3.5.1 Positive and negative effects
3.5.3 Feedback fallacy
3.6.1 A good criticism
3.6.2 Lousy criticism
3.7 Techniques of constructive criticism
3.7.1 Giving and receiving the message
3.7.2 Hamburger method
3.8 Psychopathology of criticism
3.9 Anti-psychiatry movement and criticism
3.10 Authority issues
4 Purpose of criticism
4.1 Negative Arguments
4.2 Affirmative Arguments
5 See also
7 External links
This section is about the origin and evolution of the meanings of the expression "criticism". Early English meaning
The English word criticism is derived from the French critique, which dates back to at least the 14th century. The words "critic" and "critical" existed in the English language from the mid-16th century, and the word "criticism" first made its appearance in English in the early 17th...
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