Critics on Article 1 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution

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The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.


A law was passed dividing the Philippines into three regions (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao), each constituting an independent state except on matters of foreign relations, national defense and national taxation, which are vested in the Central government. Is the law valid? Explain.

The law dividing the Philippines into three regions, each constituting an independent state and vesting in a central government matter of foreign relations, national defense, and national taxation, is unconstitutional.

First, it violates Article I, which guarantees the integrity of the national territory of the Philippines because it divided the Philippines into three states.

Second, it violates Section 1, Article II of the Constitution, which provides for the establishment of democratic and republic States by replacing it with three States organized as a confederation.

Third, it violates Section 22, Article II of the Constitution, which, while recognizing and promoting the rights of indigenous cultural communities, provides for national unity and development.

Fourth, it violates Section 15, Article X of the Constitution, which, provides for autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and in the Cordilleras within the framework of national sovereignty as well as territorial integrity of the Republic of the Philippines. Fifth, it violates the sovereignty of the Republic of the Philippines.

Can the Philippines extend its national territory?

Philippines can't even reclaim Mindanao from those al qaeda wannabees abu sayaf. how you expect it can take over and run additional territory?

The Philippines can’t even control all the territory it already has. Only by means of War. but i doubt the Philippines has the means.



Let me give you an incident occurred after four-month-old Philippine baseline law got its first test recently and it failed miserably and embarrassingly.

It was reported that a Chinese submarine collided with an underwater sonar array towed by the destroyer USS John S. McCain off the Philippines.

Other wire reports from Washington D.C. described the location as "off Subic Bay" in Zambales. Chinese media said the encounter was near Scarborough Shoal.

The Philippine government version of the location of the high seas collision, given two days after the incident, was closer to that of China. Our Defense Assistant Secretary said "it was 125 nautical miles off Subic, near the Scarborough Shoal, which is 123 nautical miles from Subic."

Under the baseline law, Scarborough shoal is part of Philippine territory classified as a "regime of islands." Inclusion of the shoal in Philippine territory was protested by China, which also claims the shoal as well as the whole of South China Sea.

Critics: From the three versions of the location of the collision, it can be concluded that it is in Philippine territory. It can be likened to two quarreling bullies bringing their fight into the front yard a third party, which, in this case, is the Philippines. What did the Philippines do after seeing the two intruders fighting in its front yard? Our Press Secretary showed his ignorance of the baseline law said the "the two ships were outside Philippine waters."

Suggestion: Someone, please give our Press Secretary a copy of the baseline law and the UNCLOS (United...
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