As Anderson says (2010), organizational success not only requires project managers not only handle projects, but also lead employees. Managers and leaders must possess knowledge, skills, tools, and experiences therefore employees will to follow them. For organization, to gain and sustain employees can not only create value and high levels of performance, but also as the only vehicle through which an organizational goals are accomplished. More importantly, the best style of leaderships is more than one style; it depends on followers’ needs. As we know that management engages in the process of integrating work activities therefore people can complete work more efficient. According to Mullins (2005), management is a process with enables organizations to set and achieve objectives by planning organization & controlling their resources, including their resources, including gaining the commitment of their employee. The process of management involves sets of ongoing decisions and action in which managers engage as they plan, organize, lead and control. As Laurie (2005) says, management strives for high efficiency and high effectiveness. Management exists in different kinds of organization. Organization is more likely a tool used by people by coordinate their different actions to obtain something they desire to. In terms of Otara (2001), a good organization structure does not by itself produce good performance without leaders and mangers. Leaders and managers in organization need to know the main influences on behaviour in work organizations and the nature of the people. According to Otara (2011), managers and leaders in organization are entrusted with employees whom they must work with and through to realize organizational objectives. In organizations, perceptions of leaders, managers and employees shape the climate and effectiveness of the working environment. This paper firstly focus on the critical review the role of leadership and management in supporting employees’ motivation with relevant motivation theory, and then critical review how leaders and managers in achieving employee engagement today.
The reason of leaders and mangers in motivating individuals
In terms of the study of Robert (2001), a leader or a manager must first be motivated within in order to inspire others to action. A good leader and manager can motivate others can turn a difficult situation into a learning experience. In terms of motivating, Mullins (2005) has identified four common characteristics of motivation. First, motivation is typified as an individual phenomenon. This means that everyone is unique and all the major theories of motivation allow for this uniqueness to be demonstrated in one way or another. Second, motivation is usually as intentional, which means that motivation is assumed to be under the workers’ control and behaviours are influenced by motivation. Third, motivation is multifaceted and the fourth is that motivational theory is to predict behaviour. Motivation concerns action, and the internal and external forces which influence a person’s choice of action.
Leadership in supporting individual motivation
Leader is the people telling people do the right things and manager is the people who telling people do the things right. Mathis (2007) emphasizes that effective leaders build bridges, which means that a good leader not only connect past but also present future to employees. A good leader is always keeping employee performing at high levels in their work. Moreover, there are two important styles of leadership: transactional and transformational. Transformational is about leaders raise individual’s motivation, while transaction focuses on exchange between leaders and individuals.. Both of Caldwell, Truong, and Tuan (2011) have suggested that transformational leadership require leaders...