Celebrity endorsement appears to be an effective marketing communication tool for today’s marketers. Generally, the tool is not a new phenomenon as it has appeared in advertising message execution since the late nineteenth century in the utilization of Queen Victoria in Cadbury’s Cocoa (Shennan, 1985 cited in Erdogan, 1999, p.292), yet it still seems to be a powerful tool in this intense commercial era. Celebrity endorsement is the use of celebrity as a spokesperson which could incur large investment for the firm in exchange of transferring endorsers’ qualities- credibility and attractiveness- to the brand that would result in generating desirable outcomes. The consequences refer to the influence on consumers brand choices, thus creating consumers’ attentions, and purchase intentions to the brand (Erdogan, 1999, p.291). Although celebrity endorsement has been controversial as a double-edged sword because of the inconsistent images of celebrities, it could incrementally provoke consumers’ affections for the brand with celebrities’ qualities.
To begin with, this essay discusses the positive effects of celebrity endorsement on brand affinity in terms of reassuring consumers of the product qualities and differentiating a brand from its competitors, using Nike-Golf and Canon case studies. Then, the essay discusses hazardous effects towards brand affinity when using celebrity endorsement with reference to the Tiger Woods’ infidelity and David Beckham multiple images case studies. These effects include celebrities’ images changing and loss of public recognition, and public controversy. Finally, there is a discussion and an emphasis on the celebrity endorsement’s rewards that lead to the higher level of brand affinity.
In this essay, the term celebrity is defined as ‘people who enjoy public recognition and who often have distinctive attributes such as attractiveness and trustworthiness’... [continues]
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