Critical Metaphor Analysis Approach

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I. INTRODUCTION

II. OBJECTIVES

III. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF METAPHOR

IV. METAPHOR AND OTHER LANGUAGE
FEATURES ANALYSIS OF MARGARET
THATCHER’S SPEECH TO 1987
CONSERVATIVE PARTY CONFERENCE IN
BLACKPOOL

V. CONCLUSION

VI. REFERENCES

VII. APPENDIX I
I. -------------------------------------------------
INTRODUCTION

Rhetoric is the art of persuading others. Persuation is an interactive communicative process in which a message sender aims to influence the beliefs, attitudes and behaviour of the message receiver( cf. Jowett& O’Donnell 1992:21-26) Persuation involves exploiting existing beliefs, attitudes and values rather than introducing completely new ones. A persuader analyses an audience in order to be able to express its needs, desires, personal and social beliefs as well as its attitudes and concerns about the social outcome of the persuasive situation. The persuader is ‘a voice from without speaking the language of the audiences’ voice within.’(Ibid:25-26) Metaphor is a very effective means through which potential leaders can communicate the ‘voice within’ because it creates evocative representations of the speaker and their policies by arousing emotions and forms part of the process by which an audience reconstructs the causal relationships of an argument. Metaphor is closely related to conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff 1993; Lakoff and Johnson 1980) but also goes beyond it. Critical Metaphor Analysis Approach addresses the rhetorical and ideological role of metaphor in discourse and analyses it in authentic data. According to Charteris-Black metaphors should not only be analysed cognitively, but also pragmatically as they are powerful tools of persuation in discourse. They can influence political and social judgements as well as develop new ideologies thus shaping new ways of communicating. Metaphors move us because they shift the way we understand the world and influence our feelings about it. They appear to be a ‘linguistic representation that results from the shift in the use of a word or phrase from the context or domain in which it is expected to occur to another context or domain where it is not expected to occur, thereby causing semantic tension. It potentially has linguistic, pragmatic and cognitive characteristics.’(Charteris-Black, 2004:21) Critical analysis of metaphors in a certain text reveal particular language features that occur in it as ‘metaphor can only be explained by considering the interdependency of its semantic, pragmatic and cognitive dimensions and thus integrates the areas of cognitive semantics, pragmatics and discourse analysis.’(Jonathan Charteris – Black, 2004) -------------------------------------------------

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II. OBJECTIVES

In this paper I will explore the linguistic performance of one of the most outstanding British politicians Margaret Thatcher in her address to the Conservative Party at the Blackpool Conference in 1987 in order to explain the systematic correspondence between her linguistic choice and metaphorical meanings.

I will define the main characteristics of metaphor and its interaction with other linguistic features which will help me to find out how far the metaphors used in Margaret Thatcher’s speech and their critical analysis account for particular language features that occur in the text.

I will also discuss the relation of metaphor to other linguistic strategies, its cognitive and affective basis as essential elements in the creation of an overall persuasiveness and successful performance of leadership.

III. -------------------------------------------------
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF METAPHOR

Metaphor is...
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