Critical Discourse Analysis of Language Advertisements

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 1278
  • Published : April 11, 2011
Open Document
Text Preview
Kotler 4P’s of marketing

Faculty of Business and Management
University of Balamand

January, 2011

Copyright © 2011

All Rights Reserved

Acknowledgement

Thank you Dr. Fadila for your continuous support and the perseverance, tolerance that you have provided us throughout the semester.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgementii
Table of Contentsiii
Chapter 11
Introduction1
Chapter 24
Body4
Chapter 37
Model Application7
Chapter 49
Conclusion9
List of References:10

Chapter 1

Introduction

1. Historical Development:

Four P’s of marketing was known as “marketing mix”. In 1948, Prof. James Culliton, “an American marketing expert”, has considered the “marketing manager” as a “decider” because all the decisions concerning the company are decided by him such as investing new items. Then, Prof. Neil H. Borden has suggested “marketing mix”. Marketing mix is the merger of marketing procedures and policies” to increase profits at a certain time. (Jain, A., p.76, 2009-2010)

In 1964, according to Prof. Neil H. Borden, marketing mix is a strategy that contains twelve components that would control the firm to a “profitable business operation” (Constantinides, E. E., p. 408, 2006).

These variables were used to persuade the buyer view (Jain, A., p.76, 2009-2010).

In 1964, Jerome McCarthy has eliminated the Borden’s components from twelve to only four elements: Product, Price, Promotion, and place (Constantinides, E. E., p. 408, 2006).

Later, Prof. Philip Kotler has made adjustments to the marketing mix in the shape of four P’s. Prof.Kotler has clarified the marketing mix from the seller perspective not the buyer (Jain A., p.76, 2009-2010).

2. Who created the Model:

According to the historical development view, the person who really created the model 4 P’s of marketing is Jerome McCarthy in 1964 because he has reduced the Borden’s components from twelve to four. But the person who has adjusted later the model was Philip Kotler who has enlightened the model from the seller sight.

3. What were the reasons? Circumstances?

➢ This Model was created for many reasons:

• “ Creating an environment conductive to sales”

• Knowing our customers’ needs and satisfying them by our products and services for setting organizational goals as being successful

• Increasing profits

• Being efficient in the market

• Having manageable and well organized company

• Increasing performance of the company (English, J., p1, 2000).

➢ Circumstances:

Companies that have applied the model and have given “the science credibility” in the business marketplace: -“Coca cola”

- “Pepsi”

- “Bayer”

- “Proctor and Gamble”

- “Bristol- Myer Squibb” (Doyle S., p2, 2001)

4. Was it immediately used or picked up later?

It was picked u later because in 1964, according to Prof. Neil H. Borden, marketing mix is a strategy that contains twelve (Constantinides, E. E., p. 408, 2006).These variables were used to persuade the buyer view (Jain A., p.76, 2009-2010). Later, in 1964, Jerome McCarthy has eliminated the Borden’s components from twelve to only four elements: Product, Price, Promotion, and place (Constantinides, E. E., p. 408, 2006).

Finally, Prof. Philip Kotler has made adjustments to the marketing mix in the shape of four P’s. Prof.Kotler has clarified the marketing mix from the seller perspective not the buyer (Jain A., p.76, 2009-2010).

5. Explain or give information about the need and application of this model:

This Model is needed to create, communicate, and deliver value for consumers. It determines the needs and wants of specific targets markets and...
tracking img