Critical and Creative Thinking

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The first theory which I would like to introduce is the most common theory by Jean Piaget. His theory, Cognitive Development, discussed the stages of information processing of a person throughout the years from young. There are a total of four stages where Piaget had briefly explained the stages where a child would start learning critical thinking skills and improving on the skill. The Sensorimotor stage is the first stage which Piaget had observed for a child to start experiencing and evaluating from each experience. It starts during the infant stage when the infant would begin with touching and experiencing objects around her and evaluates from. For example, when an infant observes that she is fed whenever she cries, she is accepting the solutions given by the environment, her caretakers. Thus, she accepts that whenever she cries, she would be fed. Preoperational Stage is where the child starts to make decisions on their own and usually falls between ages two to seven. They would display characteristics such as “Symbolic Function” (Pg. 44) where they use their imagination to represent objects that are not present. For example, they imagine a saucer as a spaceship. They undergo “Egocentrism” where they believe that everyone thinks in the same perspective as them and they are the most important. Another characteristic is “Centration” when the child only thinks in a way which there would unlikely have any alternatives. For instance, they will only believe that a bowl of cereal would only be for breakfast but not for other meals as they only consume the cereal in the morning for breakfast. They are unable to do reverse operations (Pg 45) like telling that a plasticize aeroplane was from a ball of plasticize when it was kneaded it into an aeroplane. They would believe that all non-living objects are alive and would communicate with them. Lastly, they would display a “Transductive Reasoning” where the child perceives that when A occurs, B is an effect of it. Thus,...
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