Q1) Marsland’s article on “how to sweep these beggars from our streets” fits the right realist approach by assuming that people have chosen to be beggars of their own ‘free will’. He shows this by saying that capitalism and poverty is not the cause of them going begging he refers to them as an ‘intolerable blot’ as he believes them to as being a nuisance and are nothing more than parasites. He says “their possessive occupation like locusts swarming on the harvest”. He argues that begging should be shamed out of existence but blames the welfare as causing the escalation in begging. As he argues that they do not possess any morals and would advocate the return of the work house as he seems to favour Victorian standards and could also be likened to ‘John Major’s’ ‘back to basics’ speech which took place a year earlier.( www.guardian.co.uk,politics,1993) It could also be said that Marsland believes the beggars to be lacking in intelligence as Wilson and Hernnstein (1985) while looking at circumstances of black Latin Americans were not caused by discrimination but the ‘fact’ that they were born less intelligent. Herrnstein and Murray (1985) extended on this by linking low intelligence with criminality. (Joyce, P. (2006) Criminal justice: an introduction to crime and the criminal justice system)
Marsland also fits into the right realist approach by playing on the moral fibres of society, by describing them as not possessing the values of hard-working people and therefore creating an ‘us and them culture’.
2) How does Field’s view in Item B differ from the right realist approach?
Field’s view differs dramatically from Marsland’s right realist approach as he accepts that the growth of poverty and the lack of work of many young people and their exclusion from mainstream society is a cause of them begging. In the regards to right realism, he takes an opposite view and one could argue that it is left realist approach as it empathises with the situation of the beggars and seeks to understand the problem rather than pushing it to one side. Field sees the beggars as victims of society rather than criminals and also points out that it’s a surprise that there is not more crime in society as he sees begging as a ‘fact of life’ and not a deviance. Field’s view of the behaviour of the beggars is quite the opposite from Marslands as he describes beggars as peaceful and not the aggressive menace Marsland would lead you to believe. Field also says that beggar’s are not behind the sudden dip in morals that seems to be the right realist view. Although Field seem to paint a pretty picture he does not offer any underlying reason for individual reasons for begging such as drug abuse or alcoholism and he also fails to offer any explanations as to why begging occurs in the first place. He also does not suggest any solution to the problems of beggar’s and he just simply accepts their existence. (Joyce, P. (2006) Criminal justice: an introduction to crime and the criminal justice system)
Task 2 Examine and evaluate key arguments and current debates on crime prevention and control. (approx. 800) 2.1, 3.1
There are two types of control in society: formal and informal control. Included in informal control is: friends, family and peer groups. The family offers control by providing us with norms and values and also sets the basis for our morality. Friends and peer groups teach people their role in society and how to conform, as well as socialisation. As friends and peers tend to be of a similar age, therefore individuals tend to relate more to their peers rather than the family. Formal social controls are organisations or systems with rigid rules, ideologies and morals that we obey. Included in formal social control is: religion, education, the mass media, the health service and the legal...