Criminology is a social science, entire world is a criminologist laboratory. Sutherland defined criminology as the study of the making of laws, the breaking of laws, and societies reaction to the breaking of laws. Topinard- coined the term criminology.
Criminal Justice- term first used in 1967. President Johnson had the Wickersham committee and talk to people about police brutality, bad judges, and see what the story was really about. The report the Wickersham committee gave to Johnson recognized that police, jail and court were subsystems and all these things as a whole is a criminal justice system. The study of criminal justice derived from that. How is it organized? What is the policies are procedures?
Consensus view- the law is made for the general good of the people. Conflict view- people who make the laws are hungry for power and caters to special interest groups.
Indiana has list of infractions a,b,c,d. D is least serious, A is most serious.
Misdeamenor – cannot be put in jail for more than one year. Indiana has 4 classes for misdeameanor – a,b,c,d. A is most serious, D is least serious. D jail sentence maybe 30 days. A is a year maybe. Jail is short term incarcertation (year or less). Murder is the most serious felony in Indiana. How many classes of Indiana are there? 5. Murder, A, B,C,D.
Deviance could be something that just doesn’t seem right or could be something that actually hurts people. Tattoos to murder, rape.
Crime- particular behavior that happens at a particular place and time the violates law.
Bucario wrote essay of crimes and punshiment. Too brutual of punishment for petty crimes. Revamping legal system in his country and all over Europe.
1700’s Classical school of thought- human beings have free will. Have the ability between choosing right and wrong. If you have free will, you are responsible for behavior because you choose your behavior.
Classical thinking- society can control behavior by implementing rules. It is societies responsibility to punish the crime.
Jeremy Bentham- utilitarianism. Punishment of broken law should serve purpose. It should have some utilty. Make the criminal understand, or set an example.
Human beings weight the risks and benefit of the crime.
Neoclassical school of thought- free will, but takes into account if they are not mentally able to understand…takes special circumstances into account.
1800s origin of species-
1850’s positivist school of thought- we are not responsible for our actions. There outside forces that control our behavior. Outside forces override our ability to think freely. We don’t have free will. Some of our behavior is determined by these forces. Biological forces-hereditary/criminal gene psychological forces-
Rational choice theory- Human beings who are rational, make the choice to commit the crime. They choose to break the law.
Routine activity approach- 3 things have to fall into place for the crime to occur. 1) Motivated offender- who wants to commit a crime, or likes it. 2) Suitable target- something they want
3) Must be an absence of capable guardians- owners not there. No camera.
Target hardening – making it difficult for a crime to be committed. Lifestyle- people become victims of crime because of there lifestyle.
Is there always a victim in a crime? Not always obvious who the victim is, no always an apparent victim. More likely to victimized by someone you know.
General Deterrence- to make an example out of someone who committed a crime. Specific deterrence/special- deter that specific offender from committing crime again Death penalty- deterrence
Controversial- does deterrence really work? Philosophical understanding. Truth and sentencing laws- different variations, attempt to make sentence what they actually serve.. Indiana does not have truth and sentencing law. 20 year sentence, earliest they can get...