Criminal Justice Administration Capstone
June 11, 2012
Criminal Justice Trends
Criminal justice system is forever changing to protect and server society. Relationships between the United States government, state, and local policing looking at programs from the past, need changes for the future. State and local law enforcement responsibilities, and functions in fighting crime by enforcing laws, apprehending offenders, preventing crime, and preserving the peace, has changed since September 11, 2001. State law enforcement is expanding their responsibilities, changed from acts of terrorisms, new laws, and procedures of new types of crimes. Cyber-crime, new technology, terrorism, immigration, drug, and human trafficking contributing for changes in laws nationally and international. Need to identify and assess recent and future trends that affect the criminal justice system (Homeland Security and Law Enforcement” 2009) Western law combines contributions from ancient laws and Common law. The structure of laws came from England, their Bobbies (police officers), statutory, and case law. Sheriffs were the town’s authority, received taxes, and gave out punishment and banishing citizens. Common law highlighted in 1811 when English prison reformer and jurist, Jeremy Bentham wrote to President James Madison offering to codify the law of the United States. The bases of the nation’s laws are from the Constitutions, peruses as a constraint on police power the government can enact, guarding personal liberties. The Bill of Rights and the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments limits on authority of the government to regulate people. Regarding the Fourth Amendment, part of the Bill of Rights that guard against unreasonable search and seizures supported by probable cause. In case Mapp v Ohio, in 1961 the Supreme Court the Fourth Amendment applies to the states by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. That evidence obtained buys a violation of the Fourth Amendment, not used in criminal processes. Mapps’ home searched by several police officers who claimed to have a search warrant, but never produced one. Informant information used, what was found was obscene material and Mapp convicted of possession of these materials (Cornell University Law School, 2007). The Fifth Amendment, Due Process, and Self Incrimination, part of the Bill of Rights, the Sixth Amendment set rights to fair criminal and public prosecutions. The Sixth Amendment includes: the right to a speedy trial, public trial, judged by impartial jury, notified of nature of alleged crime, right to witness to speak in one’s favor, and right to representation. The Fourteenth Amendment, Due Process Clause, applicable to the states, the Fifth Amendment allocable to the federal government. That prohibits the government from taking a person’s life, liberty, or property without due process of law, adopted on July 9, 1868, one of the Reconstruction Amendments (The Library of Congress, 2010). In the past police officers were patrolling high crime, poverty areas with gangs and organized crime. In the late 1800s and early 1900s police officers patrolled areas, and interacted with the community, making people feel safe. Building relationships with community leaders and neighborhoods, showing they were there to prevent crime, and preserve the peace. By the mid-1900s new technology had a unique influence on policing, patrol cars, and two ways radios changing the way police officers did their jobs, isolating the officers from the citizens. Changing the way police officers viewed, seen as intruders and not trusted as before. Citizen told to call 911 in case of emergency. This starting a new era of the way community policing is done within the communities (Community Policing,"2012). With the Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 enacted for collection of intelligence to each level of law enforcement, the largest impact on...