Criminal Justice

Topics: Crime, Criminal justice, Criminology Pages: 5 (1655 words) Published: June 23, 2013
The main components of the criminal justice system are as follows: police, courts, and corrections. They can be described of its functions and purpose. These components of the justice system work together to achieve justice. Each of these components’ parts in the criminal justice system work toward a common goal with the movement of cases and people through the system is smooth due to cooperation between the various components of the system. This is what we call the Consensus Model. This model is known more as the analytical tool chosen for its explanatory power. By explaining the actions of criminal justice officials, we are able to envision a fairly smooth and predictable process. However, the Conflict Model has another approach to criminal justice. This model states that the interests of criminal justice agencies tend to be self-serving. The goals of individual agencies often conflict, pressures for success, promotion, pay increases, and general accountability fragment the efforts of the system as a whole, leading to a criminal justice non-system. Conflicts within agencies often do not share the same goals, so the system may move in different directions. This may depend on political currents, informal arrangements, and personal discretion. A proportion of reported crimes that have been solved, also known as clearance rates, are judged primarily on the basis of arrests and do not involve judicial disposition. Once an arrest is made, a crime is regarded as having been cleared for reporting purposes. So, if a burglar confesses to more unsolved burglaries after his arrest that he did not commit for a lesser sentence, the police can than say they had solved many burglaries. Agencies of justice with a diversity of functions (police, courts, corrections) and at all levels (federal, state, local) are linked closely enough for the term system to be applied to them. On the other side, the very size of the criminal justice undertaking makes effective cooperation between component agencies difficult. For example, the police have an interest in seeing offenders behind bars. Whereas, prison officials often are working with overcrowded facilities. In the end, the goal of justice is affected and may even be sacrificed because of the conflicts in the system. The value of the federal crime reporting programs provide useful comparisons of specific reported crimes over time and between jurisdictions annually throughout the United States. These statistics are based on reports by victims of crime to the police. If used properly, a statistical picture of crime can serve as a powerful tool for creating social policy. Decision makers, such as legislators and administrators throughout the criminal justice system rely on crime data to analyze and evaluate existing programs. This is to design new crime-control legislation. This developed the “get tough” policies, such as the three strikes movement that spread across the Country in the 1990’s. This was based on the measured ineffectiveness of existing programs to reduce the incidence of repeat offenses. Some of the strengths that have been enhanced vs. the traditional UCR now consists of individual incident records for the eight major crimes and thirty-eight other offenses with details on offense, victim, offender, and property involved. It records each offense occurring in an incident. Distinguishes between attempted and completed crimes. Records rape of males and females. Restructures definition of assault. Collects weapon information for all violent offenses. Provides details on arrests for the eight major crimes and forty-nine other offenses. The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) isn’t a separate report, but rather a new methodology underlying the contemporary Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR) system. The goals of the innovations introduced under NIBRS were to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime-data collection by law enforcement...
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