February 22, 2013
Chapter 4: Origins and Organization of Law Enforcement
Overview: This chapter goes over the origins of police officers and the different levels of policing. It also goes over the organization of the different types of law enforcement.
I. How Did Policing Evolve?
A. Mutual Pledge System- A system of community self responsibility that existed in Britain during the Middle ages, in which residents were held responsible for the conduct of their neighbors. B. Constable- A citizen in charge or weapons and equipment for one hundred families in his geographic area. C. Shire reeve- A official appointed by the British crown who was responsible for overseeing the constables and several hundred families. II. The Watch and Ward System
The Statue of Winchester in 1285 established the watch and ward system to aid constables in their law enforcement efforts. In 1326 Edward II established the position of justice of the peace. The system of law enforcement based on the mutual pledge and supplemented by the watch and ward was in effect for several hundred years. Since gin was cheap, more people got drunk and made fools of themselves in public cause the gin act to be passed. III. The New Police Bobbies
Preventative police were the first organized police department in London established in 1829. The popular name for police officers was bobbies.
Although they weren't popular they were successful in reducing crime. Since there was a lack of discipline a lot of the police didn't take their jobs seriously. IV. Metropolitan Police in American Cities
Early as 1636 Boston had night watchmen.
The Watchmen were poorly paid and did nothing to prevent crime. In 1838 Boston created a daytime police force to supplement the night watch. The first two way radio in a police car was not installed until 1929. V. Crime Commissions and the Professionalization of Policing Crime commissions- Include Chicago crime commission, national crime commission and the wickersham commission, they focused on the improved operation of the criminal justice system as the best way to reduce crime. Progressivism- Focused on efficiency, professionalism and improved technology. Professionalization- Those changes in police organization, administration and technology aimed at improving the efficiency of the police in deterrence and apprehension of criminals. In 1930 there were fewer than 1000 patrol cars in the entire country but by 1966 there were more than 200,000 radio equipped cars. VI. The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration
It was established in 1968
Used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the criminal justice system. Was abolished in the early 80's.
VII. What Is The Organization of Law Enforcement?
The US has many different agencies at each level of government VIII. Local Police
Of the 19,000 police agencies in the US more than 17000 are operated by municipal and other local governments. Local police departments have 601,000 full time employees
They enforce state laws
Community Policing- A service oriented style of law enforcement that focuses on disorder in the community, crime prevention and fear reduction. Weed and Seed- Federal Programs that combine enforcement with community services in an effort to reduce crime. VIIII: State Police
Enforcement agencies primarily engaged in highway patrol activities. Federal Law Enforcement- Seventeen different agencies that investigate violations of federal law. Transnational law enforcement- International agreements and law enforcement efforts that attempt to serve the interests of all nations in face of the growth of international travel. Interpol- The international criminal police organization composed of 177 member nations. Training and Education.
i. Most agencies require you to pass a written, physical and drug test as well as an oral interview, a psychological assessment, a polygraph test and a background...