The organizational and administrative side of criminal justice seems to revolve around a variety of models. Some models have been developed years ago and some are even being constructed today. Some reflect off each other and some take a model and build on it. One thing is for sure; models are either closed -system models or open -system models. Closed-system models are the most widely used. They are also the easiest to use. The reason behind this is that with closed-system models explanations of occurrences do not need any outer external aspects within organizations that stand alone. According to Dean John Campion in his text book Administration of Criminal Justice, closed-systems " Rely
on internal organizational processes to account for organizational behavior (Campion, 2003). Champion gives the example of the modern penitentiary being a closed -system facility with "self-sufficient entities complete with
medical facilities, recreation, vocational training and person or group counseling"(2003).
Open-system models are defined by Campion as: " Characterization of organizations that stresses their greater external environment and seeks to explain organizational behavior by using factors and events occurring both within and outside of the organization (2000). The difference between closed -systems and open - systems is that while closed-system models are often stressing internal incidents, open-system models do not limit themselves and search beyond the internal factors, taking everything into account. Relating back to the prison scenario, Campion describes how an open system penitentiary would operate. He says: "
all factors will be considered, including how inmate prisoners are treated
.and they are acutely aware of the treatment inmates receive in other prisons"(2000).
There are also some similarities between closed-system models and open -system models. Both of them can often be used on similar situations such as penitentiary example above....
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