Criminal Investigation

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Crime Scene Investigation
Summer Crouch
Indiana Business College
Mr. Walker
“The history of crime scene investigation includes criminology. Criminology is a field of social sciences that study crime and criminal behavior that cause social phenomena with direct impacts on society. As a result of the efforts to understand this, researchers from other academic fields for example anthropology, psychiatry, medicine, etc have acquired a great amount of theories. One of these theories came from what is known as the classical school. A product of the seventeenth and eighteenth century, the classical school theory, viewed criminality as a result of free will and personal choice, never considering psychological reasons of occurrence. Emphasizing on social and legal definitions of a crime, society’s “best interest” and the role of laws in protecting the common good. Another school is the positive school, which believed in making a system to scientific investigation, consolidating scientific methods and most importantly, observing the causes of human behavior. It wished to explain behaviors as human phenomena whose causes were identified in human nature and/or social determinants.” (Lerner, 2006). Without evidence there’s no proof of who or how a crime was committed. Forensic science started in Europe in the mid 1800’s after the Industrial Revolution because there were more and more people that were coming into the cities which caused the crime rate to rise. The first forensic science lab in the United States was established in 1924 by two men named Calvin Goddard and August Vollmer. However, Edmund Locard had already established the first forensic science lab in Lyon, France where he studied and became France’s own “Sherlock Holmes”. Edmund Locard came up with the concept that everything that is touched leaves a mark. This became known as the Locard Exchange Principle.

“Locard’s Exchange Principle states that with contact between two items, there will be an exchange. For example, if a person touches the surface of a painted wall with their fingers, the wall and fingers interact and exchange trace evidence. The fingers pick up dust, flakes of paint, even trace metals on the wall and the wall likewise picks up oils and cells from the finger, as well as any trace evidence that was on the fingers from before the contact. Transfer can occur at the cellular level (like the finger on the wall) all the way up to a macro level, as seen by paint marks on guide rails along the highways from errant vehicles – the cars that left their paint marks on these rails no doubt picked up some of the metal from the rails as well.” 'Wherever he steps, whatever he touches, whatever he leaves, even unconsciously, will serve as a silent witness against him. Not only his fingerprints or his footprints, but his hair, the fibers from his clothes, the glass he breaks, the tool mark he leaves, the paint he scratches, the blood or semen he deposits or collects. All of these and more bear mute witness against him. This is evidence that does not forget. It is not confused by the excitement of the moment. It is not absent because human witnesses are. It is factual evidence. Physical evidence cannot be wrong, it cannot perjure itself, and it cannot be wholly absent. Only human failure to find it, study and understand it can diminish its value. ‘-Professor Edmond Locard (Fisher, 2007) Who has the job

Crime Scene Investigation is a job that begins where a crime was committed. A crime scene investigator includes several people doing different jobs. Police officers to secure a scene, paramedics to assist the injured, a crime scene technician who gathers evidence, and an investigator and a coroner if needed. The police work closely with fire and paramedic personnel to teach them about the basics of crime scene preservation since typically they...
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