Crime Typologies

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ABSTRACT
The objective of this paper is to recognize the different types of Crime Typologies such as violent crime, property crime, enterprise crime, and public order crime. It examines each crime by giving the definitive analysis of the crimes as well as the many examples that fall under the specific crimes. This paper aims to answer some of the questions most criminologists face as well as our society as a whole. Questions such as, how often are these crimes committed? What possesses individuals to commit these crimes? How does society actually view these crimes? Have these crimes become so imbedded in our society that we are starting to consider this part of the normal way of life? Included in this paper, is a choice of criminological theory on answering these questions. All three of these crimes are very different, but in some cases these crimes can be very similar as well. To some of us, a crime is a crime, no matter how big or small.

Crime Typology is how criminologists conduct research on the links of different types of crime and criminals. Typologies can be categorized in different ways focusing on the criminal and placing them in groups such as, professional criminals, psychotic criminals, first time criminals, and so on. Crime typologies are grouped into categories such as violent crimes, property crimes, and sex crime plus many more. The importance for the research on different types of crime and the behaviors of crime helps Criminologists understand the reason crimes are committed. The results from the research can give out useful information can offer insight on how to eliminate or reduce crime. There are three categories that can make up Crime typologies, Street crimes (violent and property), enterprise crimes, and public order crimes. The first type of crime is Street crimes. Street crimes fall into two different types of crime categories, violence and property. Street crime is considered a personal robbery. Street crimes can be defined as where either force is used on someone, where a threat was made with force and their property taken. This can also be considered where personal property is been taken away from homes or used around town. The second type of crime is Enterprise Crimes. Enterprise crimes are also known as White Collar Crimes are considered illegal activities of people or institutions whose purpose is to profit through legitimate business transactions. These crimes are committed by individuals or groups who use the corporate world as their own criminal activity. Some examples of enterprise crimes can include tax evasion, credit card fraud, and bankruptcy fraud. These crimes can also include certain activities such as soliciting bribes, kickbacks and even embezzlement. The third type of crime is Public Order Crimes. Public Order crimes are considered Victimless crimes. These crimes are considered to be behaviors that society has banned or limited due the belief that it is not considered normal to society, customs or values. These types of crimes can interfere with day to day operations or the ability to function efficiently. These behaviors are outlawed due to conflict with social policy, morals and public opinion. Some examples of public order crimes include prostitution, street walking, escort services and Pornography. (Siegel, 2006)

Violent crimes and Property crimes are measured by the Federal Bureau Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR). This program presents data reflecting a Hierarchy rule, where only the most serious offense in a multiple –offense criminal incidents are counted. According to the UCR, in 2009, an estimated 1,318, 398 violent crimes occurred nationwide, which is an actual decrease from the 5.3 percent from 2008. (UCR, 2009) According to the violent crime in the world of sociology, In the United States, violent crime accounts for around ten percent of reported crimes. Central cities have the highest rates, while...
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