The meaning of crime is stated: act or omission injuries to public welfare, punishment prescribed by law. a) Two different parties that are involved in a crime are ‘principal in the first degree’. This is the actual perpetrator, the person who committed the crime. ‘Accessory after the fact’. This person helps the perpetrator get away, knowing that a crime had been committed by this person.
b) Situational crime prevention is making it harder for a person to commit a crime. They are doing this by surveillance cameras, guards at entrances, screens that can be activated and many more ways. Research into crime patterns has shown: * crime is much more likely to occur in certain places or "hot spots"; * theft is highly concentrated on particular "hot products"; and * Some repeat victims are more likely to experience crime than other people. An example of situational crime prevention is a few years ago a department store in Coffs Harbour was a victim to numerous stealing’s of lip glosses by young girls. The lip glosses were in an area at the back of the store that was out of the way. The shop decided to put these lip glosses at the front of the shop next to the check outs where staff and other shoppers frequent. This crime prevention measure stopped the stealing of lip glosses. Other ways shops deal with crime prevention is by using surveillance cameras, guards at entrances and open plan shops so people can’t hide and conceal items they want to steal. Social crime prevention is interventions to stop people committing crimes, which can include media campaigns. It involves trying to assist persons to lead a normal life so they do not have the need to commit crime. Social crime prevention looks at factors that influence an individual's likelihood of committing a crime, such as poverty and unemployment and low education. Examples of interventions for social crime prevention are: * Support for parents before and after child-birth, by health workers; * Parenting skills training and family support, by people trained in developmental psychology; * Pre-school
* Personal, social and moral education in schools;
* Adequate play and youth activities (the type that children and young people want); * Training and employment for useful or meaningful work;
* Help to overcome or reduce the damage caused by alcohol and other drug dependencies; * Mediation and other community based conflict resolution services.
c) Post sentencing is an option that lawyers, offenders, magistrates and judges look at prior to sentencing offenders. Gaols have a duty of care to look after people in prison. Options that have to be considered regarding post-sentencing of offenders are: Security classification- this depends on the crime committed by the prisoner as to what prison they are sent to. It also depends on their prior criminal history. There are 3 basic security levels for gaols. They are maximum security, medium security and minimum security. Maximum security is: Dangerous inmates that have a severe threat to public safety, correction staff and other inmates. Medium security is: Less supervision than maximum, most inmates work in the prison, offences aren’t as serious as peoples in the maximum security. Minimum security is: Inmates pose little risk to public safety they usually do community based work outside the goal e.g. farms. Their offences are relatively minor or have proven themselves over a period of time in the goal system.
Another post sentencing option is if the prisoner is required to be in Protective custody. This refers to if the prisoner will be under threat from other inmates and will not be able to look after themselves. Persons that may be in placed in protective custody are Police...
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