Crew Resource Management

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  • Topic: Aviation terminology, Air safety, Flight planning
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  • Published : November 24, 2010
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Research Paper
Crew Resource Management

Rhandy Hurley

Advanced Aircraft Systems
Professor Ballard Barker

October 25th , 2010
Index
Background3
Definition3
Cognitive Skills4
Interpersonal Skills5
Concept6
Categories7
CRM Training11
Conclusions13
References14

BACKGROUND
CRM was originally developed as a response to the finding of the causes of various aircraft accidents which were attained after the introduction of flight recorders and cockpit voice recorders into aircraft. The Information retrieved from these recording devices suggested that the majority of these accidents result not from a technical malfunction of the aircraft or its systems or from a failure in aircraft handling skills or knowledge on the part of the crew. It showed instead that they are primarily caused by the inability of crews to respond accordingly to the situation in which they are. Things like, for example, deficient communications between crew members lead in turn to a loss of situational awareness, disrupt the teamwork in the aircraft, and ultimately may lead to a disastrous situation. DEFINITION

CRM comprises a wide range of knowledge, skills and attitudes including communications, situational awareness, problem solving, decision making, and teamwork. Of course with all the sub-disciplines that each of these areas include. The parts that conform CRM are not new; actually they have been recognized or implied in aviation since the beginning. The difference is that now they are defined, structured and articulated in a formal way. CRM can be defined as a management system which makes optimum use of all available resources, including: equipment, procedures and people, to promote safety and enhance the efficiency of flight operations. CRM is not much centered in technical knowledge and skills to fly and operate the aircraft but rather with the cognitive and interpersonal skills required to manage the flight within an organized aviation system. Cognitive skills are the mental processes used for gaining and maintaining situational awareness, solving problems and taking decisions. Interpersonal skills are the communications and a range of behavioral activities associated with teamwork. COGNITIVE SKILLS

Situational awareness
Situational awareness includes consciousness and recognition of all the factors and that affect the safe operation of an aircraft. In order to establish situational awareness, humans take in information through the 5 senses: touch, hearing, smell, sight and taste. This information is then transformed by the brain into a mental model of the situation, a process known as perception. Perception depends not only on current information, but also on past experiences and sensations. Perception is therefore a product not only of immediate sensations but also of cultural and social influences acquired through a life-time of experiences. For a pilot, much of the information from which situational awareness is derived comes from the flight instruments and the navigational equipment on board, so the process of constructing an accurate mental image of the position of the aircraft is subject to a number of degrading influences such as inattention, distraction, stress, boredom, fatigue and others. Planning and Decision Making

One of the most important aspects of CRM is to ensure that high quality decisions are taken across the whole spectrum of flight operations. Preflight planning increases situational awareness and also allows all members of the crew to manage successfully their own specific areas of responsibility. Understanding the plan also allows individual crew members to contribute in the most effective way to decisions made in flight. As the flight progresses, the captain should update the crew at regular intervals on any changes to the original plan, so that individual crew members can maintain good situational awareness. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS

Communications
It is evident that effective...
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