creativity theories: skinner vs. maslow

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Creativity can be defined in many different ways because it is such a broad term. "It has been known to some as the step-child of psychology. This statement characterizes the historically difficult relationship existent between gifted individuals and society and, between science and creativity research" (Bergquist, "A Comparative View of Creativity Theories", p.1). Therefore, gifted individuals, in any area of creativity, are the ones who show the most creativity; those who are creative are gifted in whatever they do.

Creativity occurs within a person and results in an original work of art. The individual goes through a process that leads up to his creativity, and therefore shows his creative abilities as the outcome. Whether it is shown through art, music, literature, or any other type of creative expression, the result is still a product of creative performance.

Catherine Patrick offered a systematic confirmation of the stages. The stages have become generally accepted. They are 1) preparation, 2) incubation, 3) insight (or discovery, illumination), and 4) verification or concretization. I should add that this last stage often eventuates in 5) a product (in broad sense of the term). The appearance of the product may then be followed by 6) a complex process of evaluation involving criteria of morality, of usefulness, of scientific accuracy, of originality, and of beauty. (Gotz, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, p. 299).

"Creativity is the capacity to have new thoughts and to create expressions unlike any other. Creativity is a basic element in human endeavors, such as art, music, literature, and performance" ("Creativity", Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia). These creative expressions are the effects of a creative performance from the individual.

Others may feel there are a number of components that take part in the production of creativity. Creativity is generated within an individual because of these components working towards opening up the individual's innovative side. This, in turn, will cause the individual to create.

Creativity includes the use of color, laughter and freedom to enhance productivity. Creativity is fun. When people enjoy what they do, they work harder. Creativity includes conscious efforts to see things differently, to break out of habits and out-dated beliefs to find new ways of thinking, doing and being. Creativity is a natural, normal aspect of healthy human beings. ("Creativity at Work", p.1)

In addition, there are many different aspects to creativity. These aspects all come together and work towards the creating process as well as the creative result. The physiological, emotional, and mental facets all have a part in the creative processes and effects.

...Creativity in terms of physiological processes means then physical healing, physical regeneration. Creativity in emotional terms consists then of establishing, or creating, attitude changes...Creativity in the mental domain involves the emergence of a new and valid synthesis of ideas, not by deduction, but springing by "intuition" from unconscious sources. (Bergquist, "Creativity, Healing, and Shamanism", pp.1-2)

Creativity is not something that can be defined easily. It is something that is looked at differently by each individual. Therefore, many psychologists, philosophers, and authors wrote articles and books on creativity according to their points of view. As a result of reading these articles and books, many people are then able to come up with their own point of view.

Burrhus Fredrick Skinner and Abraham Harold Maslow were two American psychologists that wrote about their views on creativity. They had very different views on creativity; yet, they were both very precise in their explanations. Both Skinner's and Maslow's work in The Creativity Question, edited by Albert Rothenberg and Carl Hausman, shows their differences specifically.

"Behaviorism is an excellent 'lab animal' but in the 'real world'...
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