Creativity and Innovation of Myanmar Traditional Medicine Manufacturers

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Abstract
This thesis presents the creativity and innovation of Myanmar traditional medicine manufacturers. The personal interviews are conducted with randomly selected 73 manufacturers by using structured questionnaires. The degree of creativity of innovative manufacturers, the influencing factors on creativity and innovation, and the relationship between innovation and performance of manufacturers are analysed. It is found that the innovative Myanmar traditional medicine manufacturer has high level of creativity. The determinants of creativity of manufacturers are in both personal and institutional nature. Those are personal traits of risk-taking and innovativeness, and the institutional capabilities of formal education on traditional medicine and cooperation with stakeholders. The determinants of innovation are largely in institutional nature. Those are manufacturer’s creativity and institutional capabilities of formal education on traditional medicine, and research and development. The performance, measured with either number of items of drugs or sales volume, is resulted from innovation. This thesis also highlights the innovations and contributions of Myanmar traditional medicine manufacturers by making second time interviews with innovation generating manufacturers with open discussions on their innovative activities. It is found that the idea generation for new medicine drugs generally stems from the combination of formal education, practical experience from giving treatment on patients, and manufacturer’s creative thinking. They consider the process innovation immediately after getting ideas for new medicine drugs. They usually consider GMP, ISO, and sometimes organic standards in applying process innovation. After that, the innovative medicine drugs are produced. The marketing innovation is just at the stage of adoption from other industry practices at current situation in Myanmar.

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