Topic: Creative advertising is not always effective.
Theories: theories on advertising and advertising effectiveness Research: what has been researched? I.e. advertising and advertising effectiveness Application: evidence that creative advertisement is not always effective Personal views: based on TRA, what are your views to support your themes?
An identified sponsor has paid for any form of non-personal communication about an organisation, product, service or idea that has passed through a mass communication channel to reach a broad audience.
2. Theories and Models
There are theories within external marketing communication and advertising that has been highly influential in both textbooks and in the professional advertising practice (Hackley, 2005). These theories all derive from what can be referred to as the learning theory which is a theory that can be related to the Pavlov.s dogs. experiment. Pavlov trained his dogs to associate the arrival of food with the ringing of a bell; a sound that alone would lead to the salivation response among the dogs. Just like the bell in Pavlov.s dogs. experiment, advertising was seen as a stimulus that would give rise to a response, just like the dogs’ salivation response.
After further developments of the learning theory, it gave rise to a new more up to date approach toward advertising planning. (Mackay, 2005). This new approach generally reflects the methods and assumptions of cognitive psychology.
2.1 Lavidge and Steiner hierarchy of effects
According to Kitchen (1994) advertising are aiming to progress customers through the cognitive, affective and behavioural stages before they buy the products. An example on a model that exemplifies these stages is the Lavidge and Steiners model. (Kitchen 1994, Barry & Howard 1990).
Cognitive Stage Affective Stage Behavioural Stage Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction Purchase
According to this model customers do not switch from being completely uninterested to become convinced to buy the product in one step. Lavidge and Steiners Hierarchy-of-effects model is created to show the process, or steps, that an advertiser assumes that customers pass through in the actual purchase process (Barry & Howard, 1990). This model follows seven steps. Lavidge and Steiner (1961) write that the steps has to be completed in a linear way, but a potential purchaser sometimes may move up several steps simultaneously. (Lavidge & Steiner, 1961, p. 60) which is supported by Munoz (2002) who writes that normally ultimate customers do not switch directly from being interested to become convinced buyers. Lavidge and Steiner identify the seven steps in the following order: 1. Close to purchasing, but still a long way from the cash register, are those who are merely aware of its existence.
2. Up a step are prospects who know what the product has to offer. 3. Still closer to purchasing are those who have favourable attitudes toward the product . those who like the product.
4. Those whose favourable attitudes have developed to the point of preference over all other possibilities are up still another step.
5. Even closer to purchasing are customers who couple preference with a desire to buy and the conviction that the purchase would be wise.
6. Finally, of course, is the step which translates this attitude into actual purchase. (Lavidge & Steiner , 1961, p. 59)
Another theory offered by Mackay (2005) is the hierarchy of effects. The hierarchy of effect approach is grounded on the base that to be effective and achieve the desired response, several steps has to be completed and passed. Any piece of persuasive communication must carry the audience through the series of stages that has been drawn. These stages are placed so that a customer has...