Creating Employment Opportunities in India

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India is a large country with a large population. She is faced with an alarming situation of widespread unemployment. A large number of people are unemployed both in the urban and rural areas.

Unemployment is a condition of involuntary or forced idleness, which on the one hand hinders effective demand for agricultural and industrial products, and on the other paves the way for anti-social activities. It indicates a situation wherein all human resources which should have been geared to maximise the natural production are not being utilised. Such a situation results in far-reaching consequences. It makes the measures to increase production and renders the rights of labour unsafe. It is a criminal waste of pro¬ductive power. Though it is a world-wide phenomenon, its consequences in under-developed and developing couptries are more dangerous than in industrially advanced countries, where it is only fractional and largely due to occasional deficiency in aggregate demand. In developing countries like India the production is labour Intensive rather than capital intensive, the wages and earnings of the workers are very inadequate resulting in general poverty all over. There is large scale under-employment in rural areas. In the middle class the extent of unemployment has reached alarming proportions. It is a most serious problem faced by India and a great challenge to the planners and administrators of the country. In recent years the problem has become a cause for grave concern as it has started threatening our economic and social fibre. It needs most immediate attention. Before we discuss the ways and means to solve the problem of unemployment, it is better to examine the exact nature of it. The pro¬blem is widespread in rural as well urban areas. So far as rural areas are concerned, a very large number of people living in villages remain without any work for about five to seven months in the year. More than 70 per cent of the total pouplation of the country is...
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