Cpu Research Paper

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CPU: Past, Present, Future

Table of Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………….3 CPU………………………………………………………………………………….…3 CU………………………………………………………………………………………3 ALU…………………………………………………………………………………….3 Register…………………………………………………………………………………4 Bus………………………………………………………………………………………4 Past………………………………………………………………………………………………4

1st Generation…………………………………………………………………..………..5
2nd Generation…………………………………………………………………….....…..5
3rd Generation………………………………………………………………………..…..6
4th Generation……………………………………………………………………………6
Beyond…………………………………………………………………………………..7 Present……………………………………………………………………………….……..……7 Future……………………………………………………………………………………..………8 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………..……9 References……………………………………………………………………………….………10

Introduction

“A CPU (central processing unit) is the “brain” of the computer; it follows the instructions of the software to manipulate data into information.” (Sawyer, 2010, p. 208) The CPU performs logic and arithmetic operations, controls instruction processing, and supervises the overall operation of the computer. The main components of the CPU are the CU (control unit) and the ALU (arithmetic/logic unit). (Dugger & Gerrish, 1994, p. 578) The CPU also has registers which temporary store data during processing, and buses that act as roadways which transmit bits of data within the CPU and to other components on the motherboard.

CPU:
The control unit deciphers the instructions from the input and moves them into memory. For each instruction the CPU will fetch the instruction, decode the instruction, execute the instruction, and store the result. These four basic operations are known as a machine cycle. The control unit is therefore responsible in the CPU to instruct and control where the data goes to and what will happen to it. (Sawyer, 2010, p. 208)

ALU:
The arithmetic/logic unit executes data that the control unit has sent to it. It performs basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The ALU also performs basic logic operations such as comparing two numbers to see if they are equal, less than, greater than, or not equal. (Dugger & Gerrish, 1994, p. 581)

Registers:
“Registers are high-speed storage areas that temporarily store data during processing.” (Sawyer, 2010, p. 209) The CPU contains several types of registers such as an instruction register, address register, storage register, and an accumulator register. These registers may store a program instruction, store data while being processed, or store the results of a calculation. Without the registers the control unit or arithmetic/logic unit could not complete their work. Buses:

“A bus is a group of parallel conductors which carry information.” (“Microprocessors,” 1983, pp. 2-2) The conductors may be wires in a cable, foil patterns on a printed circuit board, or microscopic metal deposits in a silicon chip. Buses act as data roadways to get data from one place to another as needed.

The term CPU/central processing unit has been in use since the 1960s. Nowadays, we are more familiar with the term microprocessors which are CPUs that are manufactured on integrated circuits in a single-chip package. However, before getting into today’s technology I will take a look at the past CPU technology.

Past

Exactly which computer was the first electronic computer completed in the United States is a controversial subject. Iowa State University claims that the Atanasoff-Berry Computer at ISU was completed in 1942 just before its creator was called up for duty in the war effort. (Munns) Another computer at the University of Pennsylvania which was funded by the military was completed in 1946 by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly.

First Generation:
Eckert and Mauchly’s invention was called the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator, or as many now know it, as ENIAC. This first generation computer weighed 30 tons...
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