Course of Construction Accident at Site

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Proceedings of the 5th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (APSEC 2003) 26 – 28 August 2003 Johor Bahru, MALAYSIA

Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid1, Wan Zulkifli Wan Yusuf2 and Bachan Singh3 1,2 &3

Department of Structures and Materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering,Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia., and

Abstract. Statistic has shown that the number of fatality and permanent disablement cases due to accident at the Malaysia construction sites is one of the highest as compared to the other sector. Even though the number of industrial accidents decreasing but the benefits paid to the accidents victims are ever increasing. Hence, there is an urgent need to mitigate this problem. There are three basic steps that should be taken namely identifying the hazard, assessing the risk and controlling the risk to ensure a safe and conducive working condition. Implementation of effective hazards control methods may require different approaches due to changing of working environment at the construction sites. Latest technology employed at site had wiped out traditional method of construction and consequently introduce new types of hazard to the industry. Therefore, this paper is intended to identify and highlights the hazards that are most commonly found at our construction sites today. The data collection was being carried out through site investigation using a structured questionnaires forms regarding hazards in construction. The sites vary from infrastructure works, high rise building, housing development, industry building and institutional building. The study determine twelve (12) major groups of hazards in relation to works at construction sites such as power access equipment, ladder, roof work, manual handling, plant and machinery, excavation, fire and emergency, hazardous substances, noise, protective clothing and protection to public. The study was conducted on 140 construction sites and the results showed that the most common hazards for the project around the study area are associated with the protective clothing, noise and fire and emergency.

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Proceedings of the 5th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (APSEC 2003) 26 – 28 August 2003 Johor Bahru, MALAYSIA

1. Introduction
The construction industry is currently being recognized as a major economic force in Malaysia. It is also one of the most hazardous industry. Based on the Social Security Organization (SOCSO) report in 2000, the fatality rate in the construction industry in Malaysia was of more than 3 times of all workplaces. Whereas, compensation costs paid out by SOCSO for industrial accidents and diseases accounted for almost RM650 Million[1]. As the hidden or indirect cost of an accident is eight to 33 times more than direct costs, the total cost of accident can run into billions of ringgit. In the field of occupational safety and health, Malaysia is now moving away from the traditional approach whereby it is believed that all occupational hazards can be controlled through detailed regulations. On 25th February 1994, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA) came in force providing protection on safety and health for work activities in all economic sectors including public services and statutory authorities, except those subjected to Merchant Shipping Ordinance and the armed forces [2]. Under Section 15 (1) and (2) Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994, employers have a duty to ensure, as far as practicable, that employees are not exposed to any hazard at the workplace [2]. Even though there has been a marked reduction in the number of industrial accidents and the rate of accidents per 1,000 workers since the introduction of the OSHA 1994, there has not been a credible improvement over the last five years. The rate per 1,000 workers has been at a pleateau of 9.5 to 10.5 persons,...
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