Course Notes for Organizational Behavior

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Alternative approach to JOB DESIGN
1.SIP
2.Interdisciplinary approach
3.Goal setting theory
4.International perspectives

International perspectives
- japanese approach

- german job design
-Anthropocentric approach ⇒ emphasizes humans concern at the center of job design

- scandinanian approach ⇒ emphasizes social concern rather than industrial efficiency by focusing on worker control and social support system

5. MBO = management by objectives
→ annual goal-setting process that’s cyclic in nature in which managers and subordinates set goals

technocratic anthicopocentric

goal setting → most difficult and critical steps. The goals are jointly derived by managers and subordinates periodic reviews
appraise overall performance
develop action plans ← jointly derived by managers and subordinates, are the specific activities that have got to occur

6.work design & well being
→ organizations should consider the effect of job design on workers health and well-being by increasing worker control and reducing worker uncertainty, managing conflict and managing job demands

contemporary issues in job design (ie we can include the following if they’re rational and if company chooses to) -telecommuting遠距離工作→ fulfill work responsibilities from locations geographically separate from the company’s primary location …. E.g. we go and talk to them, bring them newsletter.. depending on how far they live -alternative work patterns…….

1. Job sharing → 2 part-time workers perform a job typically done by a full-time employee 2. flextime → permits employees the option to choose daily starting and quitting time as long as they work the certain no. of hours per day/ week ☺ but ☹ we cannot have every employee doing this

3. compressed work week → by extending the no. of hours per day -technology
→virtual office ---- mobile platform of information technology(IT) that allows business to be conducted anywhere and anytime ☹difficult for employees having vacation as you are always connected to work through IT ⇒ TECHNOSTRESS

= caused by advancing technology and its anxiety of potential job loss, replacement and distress about being electronically monitored -skill development
- major cause of stress
- it's the growing gap between skills needed for new technology and employee’s current skill level

Learning in organization
⇒ learning = relatively permanent change in knowledge and behavior that results from practice and experience 2 major theories
1.Operant conditioning (B.F.Skinner) → learning that takes place when the learner recognizes the connection between behavior and its consequences -consequences, antecedents

consequences
→ desired consequences, e.g. recommendation, promotion opportunity → undesired consequences, e.g. determination

antecedents = rules, goals and instructions, etc that help workers realize what behavior they should and shouldn’t perform as well as the consequences of different behaviors
-reinforcement→ anything that causes a given behavior to be repeated/ inhibited

-3 steps in reinforcement
⇒ 1. Identify the desired behavior
⇒ 2. Decide how to reinforce the behavior ~~> positive reinforcement(application of a positive consequence following a desired behavior e.g. paycheck) and negative reinforcement (~ avoidance learning) removal of an unpleasant consequence following a desired behavior ⇒ 3. administering the positive/ negative reinforcement

~~~ continuous reinforcement, behavior is reinforced every time it occurs ~~~ partial reinforcement
1) fixed interval schedule (reinforcement is given at specific times e.g. paycheck) 2) variable interval schedule (administered at random times and cant be predicted by employees e.g. spot bonus.. bonus on the spot when they find employees doing extremely well) 3. Fixed ratio schedule→ reinforcement occurs after a specific no. of desired responses e.g. piece rate, commission 4) variable ratio schedule (camp time)...
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