V33201301: Diploma of Counselling
CHC8D03V – Counselling Theories
1. Freudian Theory
2. Erikson’s psychosocial stages
3. Piagets stages of cognitive development
4. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
The nature versus nurture debate gives consideration as to how much influence the genetic makeup has on a person’s behaviour/personality compared to the influence of environmental experiences.
Genetic inheritance is considered to play a significant role in the make up of personality. Environmental or outside influences shape they way in which these genetic influences develop. During the counselling process, it is essential to be able to distinguish the environmental stimulus from genetic predisposition in order to be able to help the client.
Freud explained that the greater part of the human mind exists beneath the surface of consciousness. Humans have a myriad of thoughts, emotions and memories stored in the unconscious mind. He also believed that the content of the unconscious mind greatly impacts conscious thoughts and behaviour. This occurrence is experienced on a daily basis via dreams, forgetfulness and more so is evident in psychological problems. Freud’s theory was that all behaviour and motivation in people is deliberate and is based on past experiences. To ‘unlock’ the unconscious mind and have clients revisit past concerns can help them to better understand and improve their current behaviour.
1. The ID – The primary biological drive of personality and original component present at birth. The id necessitates the quelling of any discomfort for example to satisfy hunger or thirst. It has no moral function and is only interested in what it needs and therefore can easily be irresponsible can corrupt the personality on kept in check. 2. The Ego – The ego is better in touch with the real world and administrates the...