Counselling Theories

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ASSIGNMENT 1: COUNSELLING THEORIES

Question 1: Briefly describe the key concepts

PSYCHOANAYLYTIC THERAPY

This study explored the method of psychoanalytic therapy which was originated by Sigmund Freud as basically deterministic, in the Freudian’s view of human nature. In which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties, and internal conflicts, in order to free psychic energy for mature love and work. From the orthodox Freudian perspective, humans are view as energy systems. According to Freudian psychoanalytic view the dynamics of personality consists of the ways in which psychic energy is distributed to the id, ego, and superego. Thus, the amount is limited, one system gains control over the available energy at the expense of the other two systems. Behaviour is determined by this psychic energy. This view has been supported in the work of Corey (2009, p.58)

Corey (2009) study found the following:
THE ID: The id is the original system of personality; at birth the person is all id. The id is the primary source of psychic energy and the seat of the instincts. Ruled by the pleasure principle, which is aimed at reducing tension, avoiding pain, and gaining pleasure, the id is illogical, amoral, and driven to satisfy instinctual needs. The id never matures, remaining the spoiled brat of personality. It does not think, nut only wishes or acts. The id is largely unconscious, or out of awareness.

THE EGO: The ego has contact with the external world of reality. It is the “executive” that governs, controls, and regulates the personality. As a “traffic cop,” it mediates between the instincts and the surrounding environment. Ruled by the reality principle, the ego does realistic and logical thinking and formulates plans of action for satisfying needs.

THE SUPEREGO: The superego is the judicial branch of personality. It includes a person’s moral code, the main concern being whether an action is good or bad, right or wrong. The superego, then as the internalization of the standards of parents and society, is related to psychological rewards and punishments.

EGO-DEFENSE MECHANISMS
Corey (2009) discussed how, ego-defence mechanisms help the individual cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed. The defences employed depend on the individual’s level of development and degree of anxiety. Their either deny or distort reality and they operate on an unconscious level. Corey’s (2009) study found some common ego defences as following: Displacement: Directing energy toward another object or person is inaccessible. For example, the meek man who feels intimidated by his boss comes home and unloads inappropriate hostility onto his children.

Repression: Threatening or painful thoughts and feelings are excluded from awareness. One of the most important Freudian processes, it is the basis of many other ego defences and of neurotic disorders. Freud explained repression as an involuntary removal of something from consciousness. It is assumed that most of the painful events of the first 5 or 6 years of life are buried, yet these events do influence later behaviour. Rationalization: Manufacturing good reasons to explain away a bruised ego. Rationalization helps people justify specific behaviours, and it aids in softening the blow connected with disappointments.

Projection: Attributing to other’s ones unacceptable desires and impulses. This is a mechanism of self-deception. Lustful, aggressive, or other impulses are seen as being possessed by “those people out there, but not me.”

Sublimation: Diverting sexual or aggressive energy into other channels. For example, aggressive impulses can be channelled into athletic activities, so that the person finds a way of expressing aggressive feelings and, as an added bonus, is often praised.

PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
According to Corey (2009), “The...
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