THREE MAJOR SECTIONS
PROFESSIONAL & ETHICAL ISSUES
1. Introduction and Informed Consent
2. Confidentiality and Competence
3. Managing Boundaries
4. Multicultural Focus in
Counselling and Related Ethics
THE MEANING OF CULTURES
Latin for CULTURE:
1. “CULTURA” – TENDING &
2. “COLERA” - CHERISH
TWO TYPES OF CULTURE:
1. NONMATERIAL – Beliefs, Feelings, Values,
etc. & 2. MATERIAL – Tangible things like
architecture, schools, etc.
• Degree to which an individual has adopted
the standard way of living in a given culture.
• Not realistic to claim to know everything
about another’s culture.
• Each religion will have their unique beliefs
and traditions that needs to be respected.
• Implications in Pastoral Counselling and
• What expectations do we have?
• Different issues in life but same rules of
• Structuring during informed consent.
Are the lower class people really lazy? Or do
they just have less opportunities in life?
• How are Asians different from Westerners?
• Does this factor have a connection to
Singapore’s falling birth rate?
• How different is it to counsel males and
• What are the behaviors that are encouraged
in males yet frowned upon on females?
• Deaf counselling?
• Counselling the blind?
• People with disabilities may
experience/interpret reality in a completely
• People from the ‘hippie’ culture versus
• Do you find the music of today attractive?
• Each country will have their own unique
• Government policies (e.g. China one child
• Recognizing our own biases and presumptions
• Recognizing the natural differences of people
• Developing a non-judgmental attitude
• Respect needs & strength of diverse population
• Principle of Individual Difference
Tunnel Vision - Weakness
• Difficulty in dealing with clients from different
backgrounds (less empathy)
• Imparting own values to clients
• Inappropriate generalizations about particular
Overcoming Tunnel Vision
• Accepting different views and opinions as ours
• Avoid imposing one’s views
• Examine client expectations
• Resist making value judgments
• Avoid encouraging clients to let go of heritage
Respect Client Heritage
What do you imagine it would be like to be the
client in this situation?
What key reactions do you have to how the
therapist dealt with the client?
What main ethical issue(s) do you think this roleplay illustrates? What is your stance on this ethical issue (or these
How might you begin to work with the client in
If, during an intake session, you were to meet a client (like Sally) who challenged you because of your age or your
being of a different cultural background, how do you
expect you might react? Highlight the letter below
indicating what comes closest to your response. a)
Defensive b) Try to convince c) Referral d) Work hard to
prove e) Acknowledge limitation
What do you think would be the impact of your response
on your client?
How able are you to respond when a client challenges you
on your age, gender, or culture, implying that because of
your differences, you will not be able to be helpful.