Counselling Theories

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MODULE II

THEORIES
AND
PRACTICE

THREE MAJOR SECTIONS
THEORIES
HUMAN LIFESPAN
DEVELOPMENT
PROFESSIONAL AND
ETHICAL ISSUES

PROFESSIONAL & ETHICAL ISSUES

1. Introduction and Informed Consent

2. Confidentiality and Competence
3. Managing Boundaries
4. Multicultural Focus in
Counselling and Related Ethics

THE MEANING OF CULTURES

Latin for CULTURE:
1. “CULTURA” – TENDING &
2. “COLERA” - CHERISH
TWO TYPES OF CULTURE:
1. NONMATERIAL – Beliefs, Feelings, Values,
etc. & 2. MATERIAL – Tangible things like
architecture, schools, etc.

Acculturation
Acculturation
• Degree to which an individual has adopted
the standard way of living in a given culture.
• Not realistic to claim to know everything
about another’s culture.

CULTURE
CULTURE









Religion
Socio-Economic Status
Ethnic Background
Gender
Disabilities
Cohorts
Country
Age Group

CULTURE-Religion
CULTURE
• Each religion will have their unique beliefs
and traditions that needs to be respected.
• Implications in Pastoral Counselling and
Bibliotherapy.

CULTURE-Socio-Economic Status
CULTURE
• What expectations do we have?
• Different issues in life but same rules of
counselling applies.
• Structuring during informed consent.
Are the lower class people really lazy? Or do
they just have less opportunities in life?

CULTURE-Ethnic Background
CULTURE
• How are Asians different from Westerners?
• Does this factor have a connection to
Singapore’s falling birth rate?

CULTURE-Gender
CULTURE
• How different is it to counsel males and
females?
• What are the behaviors that are encouraged
in males yet frowned upon on females?

CULTURE-Disabilities
CULTURE
• Deaf counselling?
• Counselling the blind?
• People with disabilities may
experience/interpret reality in a completely
different way.

CULTURE-Cohorts
CULTURE
• People from the ‘hippie’ culture versus
Generation X.
• Do you find the music of today attractive?

CULTURE-Country
CULTURE
• Each country will have their own unique
culture.
• Government policies (e.g. China one child
law)

CULTURE-Age Group
CULTURE





Play Therapy
Counselling Adolescence
Adult Counselling
Geriatric Counselling

Counsellor Awareness
Counsellor
• Recognizing our own biases and presumptions
• Recognizing the natural differences of people
• Developing a non-judgmental attitude
• Respect needs & strength of diverse population
• Principle of Individual Difference

Tunnel Vision - Weakness
• Difficulty in dealing with clients from different
backgrounds (less empathy)
• Imparting own values to clients
• Inappropriate generalizations about particular
clients

Overcoming Tunnel Vision
Overcoming
• Accepting different views and opinions as ours
• Avoid imposing one’s views
• Examine client expectations
• Resist making value judgments
• Avoid encouraging clients to let go of heritage

Respect Client Heritage

LETS DISCUSS
What do you imagine it would be like to be the
client in this situation?
What key reactions do you have to how the
therapist dealt with the client?
What main ethical issue(s) do you think this roleplay illustrates? What is your stance on this ethical issue (or these
ethical issues)?
How might you begin to work with the client in
this situation?

LETS DISCUSS
If, during an intake session, you were to meet a client (like Sally) who challenged you because of your age or your
being of a different cultural background, how do you
expect you might react? Highlight the letter below
indicating what comes closest to your response. a)
Defensive b) Try to convince c) Referral d) Work hard to
prove e) Acknowledge limitation
What do you think would be the impact of your response
on your client?
How able are you to respond when a client challenges you
on your age, gender, or culture, implying that because of
your differences, you will not be able to be helpful.
Do...
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