Counseling and Psychology

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Carl Rogers – Client Centered Theory Carl Rogers theory grew out of his years of practice as a clinician. He was a firm believer in the potential of each person. Biography Grew up in the Midwest on a farm with very strict, religious parents Sick as a young man Was deeply religious Union Theological Seminary Took classes from John Dewey while at Columbia and graduated from there Worked at the Child Guidance Institute in New York Taught at the University of Rochester, Ohio State, University of Chicago & University of Wisconsin Worked at the USO during WWII Moved to California and worked at Western Behavioral Sciences Institute Lectured around the world Died in 1987 Person-Centered Theory is sometime called client-centered, person-centered, student-centered and even non-directive theory. It has two broad assumptions: Formative Tendency – All matter, both organic and inorganic, evolves from simpler forms to more complex forms Actualizing Tendency – The tendency within all humans (animals & plants) to move toward completion or fulfillment of potentials, i.e., wholeness o Some of these tendencies exist to provide maintenance while others are for enhancement o Some times human actualization tendency is realized only under certain conditions  The person must be a relationship with a partner who is congruent or authentic, and who demonstrates empathy and unconditional positive regard.  Having these qualities doesn’t cause people to move toward constructive personal change  It does, however, permit them to actualize their innate tendency toward self-fulfillment

o Rogers believed that when congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy are present in a relationship, psychological growth will invariably occur o These are necessary & sufficient conditions 1. As the individual develops the concept of self they become more aware or I or me experiences! 2. The person’s self-concept is the individual’s self-perception and their perception of their organismic self....
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