The Textile Industry occupies a vital place in the Indian economy and contributes substantially to its exports earnings. Textiles exports represent nearly 30 per cent of the country's total exports. It has a high weight age of over 20 per cent in the National production. It provides direct employment to over 15 million persons in the mill, powerloom and handloom sectors. India is the world’s second largest producer of textiles after China. It is the world’s third largest producer of cotton-after China and the USA-and the second largest cotton consumer after China. The textile industry in India is one of the oldest manufacturing sectors in the country and is currently it’s largest1.
The Textile industry occupies an important place in the Economy of the country because of its contribution to the industrial output, employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. The textile industry encompasses a range of industrial units, which use a wide variety of natural and synthetic fibres to produce fabrics. The textile industry can be broadly classified into two categories, the organized mill sector and the unorganized mill sector. Considering the significance and contribution of textile sector in national economy, initiative and efforts are being made to take urgent and adequate steps to attract investment and encourage wide spread development and growth in this sector.
TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA
The textile industry occupies a unique place in our country. One of the earliest to come into existence in India, it accounts for 14 per cent of the total industrial production, contributes to nearly 30 per cent of the total exports and is the second largest employment generator after agriculture. The Indian textile industry is one of the largest in the world with a massive raw material and textile-manufacturing base. Indian economy is largely dependent on the textile manufacturing and trade in addition to other major industries about 27 per cent of the exchange earning are on account of export of textiles and clothing alone. The textiles and clothing sector contributes about 14 per cent to the industrial production and 3 per cent to the gross domestic product of the country. Around eight per cent of the total excise revenue collection is contributed by the textile industry. So much so, the textile industry accounts for as large as 21 per cent total employment generated in the economy. Around 35 million people are directly employed in the textile manufacturing activities. Indirect employment including the manpower engaged in agricultural based raw material production like cotton and related trade and handling can be stated to be around another 60 million.
Growth of Textile Industry
The textile policy of 1985 and the economic policy of 1991 accelerated the economic growth during 1990s. Textile sector growth has been led by the spinning and the manmade fibre industry. The number of cotton/ manmade fibre textile mills rose from 1035 in 87-88 to 1741 by December 1997. The number of spinning mills number rose to 1461 in December 1997 from 752 in 87-88. Liberalisation led to the installation of open-end rotors and setting up of Export Oriented Units (EOU)2.
Currently India has the second highest spindleage in the world after China. Aggregate production of cloth during 1996-97 was 34,265 million sq. metres, an increase of nine percent over 1995-96. India's contribution in world production of cotton textiles was about 12 per cent a decade back, while currently it contributes to about 15 per cent of world cotton textiles
India has the second-largest yarn-spinning capacity in the world (after China), accounting for roughly 20 percent of the world’s spindle capacity. India’s spinning segment is fairly modernized; approximately 35 to 40 percent of India’s spindles are less than 10 years old. During 1989-98, India was the leading buyer of spinning machinery, accounting for 28 per cent of world shipments....