Cost of Capital in Commercial Banks

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

2 Background

Capital Structure decision remains one of the corporate strategies to corporate managers because it affects firm’s value. This research is conducted within the commercial banks. In many research journals and articles the cost of capital is the expected rate of return of capital in investor’s investment. Weighted average cost of capital is considered as required rate of return in the company. Component of cost of capital are; long-term debt, preferred stock, and common stock. Each must have minimum return. We analyze from previous research articles that the banks should not focus on historical cost but on new cost, because in order to invest and rise, new cost of capital is used to make decisions. Level of interest rates, tax rates are two of the factors that affects cost of capital in the commercial banks. Interest rates apply on debt and equity. It is the most important factor for investors. Cost of debt affects by the level of interest rates and also the cost of equity. As described in many articles, if interest rates increases the cost of debt increases, which increases the cost of capital. So, the raising of capital delayed till interest rate become favorable. This shows how the interest rate can be a source effective measure of the cost of capital. Similarly, if the tax rates increases, the cost of debt decreases, which decrease the cost of capital as it affects the after tax cost. The cost of capital directly and totally linked with capital structure. Capital structure influence the value of the banks, firm, company potentially by reflects the financing strategy. And capital structure should consider tax strategies. We found from different articles that the most important capital structure decisions are when the expected tax rates goes higher. The basic function of capital structure is to minimize the cost of capital and risk. Interest is tax deductable. The deductibility of interest payments provides influence for value. Higher the tax rate, the greater impact of deductibility of interest potentially on the after-tax cost of debt. These are the proved facts that are evaluated in previous researches. According to this research we are trying to find what role these factors play in commercial bank’s capital structure.

It is necessary for top management of any business institutions to ascertain the banks or firms relevant cost of capital. From the banks’ perspective, the cost of each source of capital reflects the level of return because it is affected by certain factors like tax rates, interest rates, dividends etc. as the time period changes, the level of return also changes. In its simplest form, the capital structure decision is the selection by firm management of debt-to-equity ratio for the firm.

Cost of Capital is perhaps the most fundamental and widely used concepts in financial economies. Managers of banks or corporation and also regulators employ the weighted average cost of capital for investment decisions. The WACC and the tax rates are endogenous to the firm’s debt policy. The interest rates affect the cost of debt as increasing debt increasing interest payments.

We also derive the sources of capital structure that which source is better for the commercial banks and how the interest rates, tax rates brings variation in the cost of debt and the dividends and growth rates affects the cost of equity that totally affect the weighted average cost of capital.

Our methodology allows us to value the government tax rates and interest rates that affect cost of debt. We specify numerically the affects of the variations in the factor like interest rates, tax rates and dividends, thus providing useful conceptual framework for the tax and interest policy debates that influence cost of capital of debt and equity. Finally we come to analyze that cost of debt increase or decrease by variation in the interest rates and tax rates and that help in the estimation of...
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