Cost Benefit Analysis of the Education Sector

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PROJECTS: Is a unique set of coordinated activities, with a definite starting and finishing point, undertaken by an individual or organisation to meet specific objectives within a defined schedule, cost and performance parameters (British Standards Institution, 2000).

PROJECT MANAGEMENT: Is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques in the implementation of project activities in order to meet stakeholder’s or customer’s expectations from the project. Quality and the ultimate success of the project are traditionally defined in terms of meeting and/or exceeding the expectations of the customer or top management in terms of COST (Budget), TIME (Schedule) and PERFORMANCE (Scope). PROJECT PLANNING: is a combination of three words project, plan and planning which have different meanings and interpretations. Literally a project is defined as an undertaking where capital is invested in a specific period of time to create physical assets. Whereas planning is basically a management function involving formulation of one or more detailed plans to achieve optimum balance of needs or demand with available resources. The planning process (1) identifies the goals or objectives to be achieved, (2)formulates strategies to achieve them, (3) arrange or creates the means required, and (4) implements, directs, and monitors all steps in their proper sequence. It is the act of making a plan or plans. A plan is typically any procedure used to achieve an objective. It is a set of intended actions, through which one expects to achieve a goal. A plan is more or less a road map of achieving/doing something. (Fred A. R, 2010).

COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS (CBA). It is a systematic process for calculating and comparing benefits and costs of the project. In CBA, benefits and costs are expressed in monetary terms, and are adjusted for the time value of money, so that all flows of benefits and flows of project costs over time (which tend to occur at different points in time) are expressed on a common basis in terms of their "net present value."

COST EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS: Is an objective systematic technique for comparing alternative project strategies on both cost and effectiveness simultaneously. Cost-effectiveness analysis can be used to inform project decision makers in the establishment of various social projects (health/education projects) practice guidelines and in the setting of education/ health policy.


Since independence, Tanzania education systems have gone through a number of significant changes, being part of the country’s Economic Development Plans. The following are some of the education sector reforms since independence.

i. The1962 three years Development Plan and the Expansion of Secondary Education Ordinance.

ii. The Third Five Years Development Plan: The Education Act No.25 of 1978 was passed to legalise education changes that were introduced between 1967 and 1978 following the implementation of Education for Self Reliance. Changes legalized by the Act included: the establishment of a centralized administration of schools which gave powers to the Ministry of Education to promote National Education.

iii. The Economic Liberalization Period: Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP) and Secondary Education Development Programme (SEDP). The former re-activates the commitment of the country’s realization of Universal Primary Education (UPE) by paying special attention to access equity and quality of education provided, institutional arrangement, capacity building, and improved financing.

The achievements of these reforms includes the following; increase in enrolment in both primary and secondary schools, increase in teachers recruitment, number of both staff houses and classrooms increased in trying to meet the demands as well as the establishment vocational...
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