The new Physics of Cosmic Redshift
Introduction:As we all know that light travels from source in a straight line(ray) according to concepts of classical ray optics. Redshift is the phenomenon by which light rays from distant stars that are observed on earth, show smaller frequency (longer wavelength) i.e. shifted towards the “red” end of the visible light region. This phenomenon of redshift is conventionally explained by the well-known “Doppler effect”. But according to the book “QED: The strange theory of light and matter” by Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman Redshift occurs due to the quantum mechanical propagation of photons. The Problem:Edwin HUBBLE discovered that light from distant stars exhibits longer wavelengths or reduced frequencies than that from similar radiation sources on Earth. All specific frequency lines in the electromagnetic spectrum of distant cosmic radiation sources appeared shifted towards the red end of the visible spectrum. His discovery therefore was called “astronomic redshift” defined by the redshift ratio, z = Δl / lo (1), - Δl: the elongation of a specific wave length - lo: the original wave length of emission at the source - Frequency n and wavelength lo of the radiation are correlated by the velocity of light in vacuum, c = n x (2). From on its discovery the Redshift phenomenon was referred to the “Dopplereffect of wave dynamics”, occurs when the source and the receiver are moving relative to each other. Hence this theory proved that all the distant stars , galaxies are moving away from the Earth i.e the universe is expanding. The apparent radial recession velocity away from Earth can be calculated following the Doppler equation:
n/no= (1-v/c) (3) n: a specific frequency of the arriving light, no: corresponding frequency of emission at the source v : the recession velocity of the source c the velocity of light in vacuum
Simultaneously, HUBBLE discovered that the apparent recession velocity of cosmic radiation sources increases proportionally to their distance r from Earth: v = H x r (4), H means the famous HUBBLE-constant currently estimated at about 70 km/s per megaparsec or per 3.26 million light-years. Hubble’s theory led the current view that the universe has formed from a gigantic explosion called “ the Big Bang”, which spontaneously arose from a tiny volume of matter at unimaginably high temperature followed up by adiabatic expansion and the condensation of matter while cooling down. Apparently, this expansion process is still going on today. Following HUBBLE‟s law (4), the escape velocity of an extremely distant galaxy might gain ultimately the velocity of light in vacuum, meaning its redshift ratio would theoretically equal unity. Physically of course, this is impossible nevertheless redshift ratios of z=5 and even z=7 have been measured in recent years showing supernova explosions, which apparently occurred further away from Earth than the age of the Universe postulated at about 14 billion light-years. In addition, as well known, various other inconsistencies weigh upon the Big Bang theory and many a scientist therefore questions this view. The new theory (methods used and result): The new theory uses the concepts from the “quantum electrodynamics”. He (Richard Feynman) explained the quantum mechanics of the linear propagation of photons. He showed that from the countless number of radiations that are emitted from the source only those are really effective which reach the source (cover the distance b/w them) via straight line and in close company i.e. when they cover the distance in the shortest possible time. All other dispersed photons take larger time to reach to the receiver and hence are ineffective. He said that the straight stream of photons emitted from the distant source to the Earth will meet/collide innumerous bodies (such as stars, galaxies, planets, comets, meteorites, grains, etc. which are swirling around in the universe...